Quel est le moyen le moins cher d’envoyer de l’argent au Kenya en ligne?

David Okwii

David Okwii, Bsc Electrical Engineering, Makerere University

Répondu il y a 94w

There are several ways to send money to Kenya online. First you have to choice the payment method that you will use to send money. Most providers accept credit/debit card, bank account or cash. If you want to use cash, then you have to use those providers that have agent networks such as Money gram, western Union.

Then you have to decide how the recipient is going to receive the money; directly to their bank, mobile wallet or pick-up location. Most money transfer services accept one or all of the options. I like to use World remit because it’s fast and has very good exchange rates. My girlfriend has used a lot to send me some cash from Canada. With World remit, they can use their app or web platform to send money directly to your M-pesa, bank account or to a pick location usually a forex bureau.

You also want to check out the other guys; SimbaPay, Useremit, Xoom, (great if you want to send money from Paypal to M-pesa), Transfast, Moneygram, Skrill (formerly Moneybookers or NationHela or the Wave app.

It’s important to do your home work first — that’s watch when the exchange rates are good enough. Most of these online transfer service providers don’t charge transfer fees but they recoup their profit through exchange rates. So be aware of that. You can read this article pour plus de détails.


Isaac, works at KenyaPesa

Répondu il y a 122w

The cheapest way to send money to Kenya online today is KenyaPesa.

Their fees start at $3.99 and you get a guaranteed exchange rate.

The money is delivered the same day through Mpesa, Airtel money, bank transfers and cash pick up.

As a first time client you can use the code PESA and your fees for that transfer will be waived.

Register and start sending cash to Kenya

Jens Ischebeck

Jens Ischebeck, Éditeur de site internet Fintech apps-for-money-transfer.com

Répondu il y a 6w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 89 et de vues de réponses 32.6k

There is no general answer to this question. The question is more from which sender country to which receiver country you want to transfer money. The differences between the providers are the countries they serve. And so the fees depend on that answer.

Les services tels que Worldremit ou Transferwise, en particulier, connaissent une croissance rapide.

Pour plus de détails, vous pouvez regarder de plus près mon article sur services de transfert d'argent.

Wayne Nzuki

Wayne Nzuki

Répondu il y a 37w

KenyaPesa is one of the quickest and cheapest ways you can send money to Kenya directly from your bank account or your debit card. The process is quick and absolutely straightforward. Kenyapesa makes it possible for you to send money online straight to your m-pesa contacts. Moreover, there will be no charge for your first order. Thank me later.

Use the link below to start using this service.


Seroney Memba R

Seroney Memba R, lives in Nairobi, Kenya (2006-present)

Répondu il y a 74w

If you are sending between $10-$700, Try eastpesa. its a fast, instant way to send money to Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

Maina Mucoki

Maina Mucoki, creative professional, sf, ca

Répondu il y a 110w

Wave - Send money to Africa - via their app - they do not charge a processing fee. Now available in UK Canada and USA

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

Sindre Fjellestad

Sindre Fjellestad, Fondateur (2018-present)

Répondu il y a 1w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 75 et de vues de réponses 162.5k

#1: Productive People Organize Your Work Around Their Energy Levels

We are all human, we can’t be deadly effective 24/7. But, productivity isn’t about that. Productivity is all about organizing your work around your energy levels.

According to Redbooth, your productivity isn’t constant throughout the week, or even throughout a day. We are human beings, we have a different amount of energy and productivity during a day. The study from Redbooth, shows that the normal person is most productive at around 11 am. After that, the productivity decreases, and at 4 o’clock, very little gets done.

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

Over the next day, try to observe your energy levels. When are you most effective? When are you most productive? At what times do you usually feel tired?

Identify your peak and dips in productivity. Use this template if you want.

When you have identified this, do the following.

  1. Peak Productivity Phase - It’s during these periods you should complete the study projects that involve creative strategizing, problem-solving and critical decisions.
  2. Low-Level Productivity Phase - Don’t waste this time. If you end up binge-watching Netflix every time you enter a phase like this, you will be wasting a lot of time. Instead, do the tasks that do not require a lot of energy or creativity to accomplish. This can be tasks like:

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

#2: Productive People Knows How to Delegate

Today, the quest to be effective and productive has hatched misconceptions about what having a productive day really meant.

People seem to believe that being busy is the same as being productive!

Let me tell you something:

“The more time you take to complete something does not equate to more success.”

Read that sentence. Do it again. Read it over and over until it sticks to your mind.

Being busy does not equal success!

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

Despite what we’re led to believe, time is not unlimited. And, we should regard any loss of quality time as a significant issue.

Time is the most important element we have. The one thing we can’t get more of! Read more about time-importance here.

This is why you need to learn the ART OF DELEGATION

Leon Ho (Founder of Lifehack), defines delegation like this:

” leveraging time from an outside source to give you opportunities to increase your quality time.”

Delegation is not natural. It’s a skill and an art. You need to learn to sometimes let go of control and delegate appropriate task to others.

Follow these guidelines if you want to learn the art of delegation.

    1. Leon Ho tells us to delegate the following tasks:
      1. Tasks you don’t enjoy doing - perhaps accounting or gardening.
      2. Tasks you don’t have the skills to do - rewiring your house, for example.
      3. Tasks that aren’t the best use of your time - filling out a mortgage application (an agent can do this for you).
    1. The first step is the hardest, but it’s the most crucial. You got to get out there an ask someone to help you. As long as you are asking politely you are not rude for asking. Ask and you shall receive!
    2. Don’t take it personally if someone rejects you. There will be times when people do not have the opportunity to help. If you want to master delegation, you can’t take rejection like this personal. If you are asking in a position of leadership, consider asking again more firmly.
    3. Be patient and overbearing. When you are delegating a task, chances are that they will not complete it as smooth as you would have done. Instead of getting angry when you’re helper doesn’t deliver, be there to help and guide. The next time you are delegating a task like this, they will be much better. Remember, delegation is an investment!
    4. Say thanks. Remember to thank the person for their help. Recognize and praise their efforts to other people. This will make the person more likely to accept tasks from you later.
  3. FAIS-LE
    1. Putting on your shorts and shoes is great, but it will do you no good unless you go for a run. (Anne Fenwick Proverb).
    2. Knowing how you can delegate is a fine thing to know. But it doesn’t matter if you don’t put your knowledge into action. JUST DO IT!
    3. The more experience you get of delegation tasks, the better you get.

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

#3: Productive People implement the 2 Minute Rule

“Should I spend two mintues comleting this task now, or stress about it for 4 days first? The latter seems good. - Kelly Ellis

In today's modern society we always meet new small tasks that we need to get done. Tasks like answering an email, making a call, doing laundry. Let me tell you something. Those tasks will pile up.

Therefore, live by this simple rule to always be on top of things.

If a task takes less than two minutes, don’t add it to your to-do list. Complete it immediately. If a task takes more than two minutes, plan for a later time to complete the task.

There are so many easy, dumb things we put off that we could do in two minutes or less. Like, cleaning up after eating a meal, throwing dirty clothes into the hamper instead of onto the floor, taking out the trash, sending out an email — should we go on?

Nobody on this Earth is too busy to quickly knock out a two-minute task before moving onto something else they’d rather be doing. Try it and you’ll see.

Applying the 2-minute rule is a great way of simply getting these “small tasks” done. Doing this will hinder you in getting overwhelmed and you will always be staying on top of things.

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

It’s a wrap.

Thank you for taking the time!

Jusqu'à la prochaine fois.

BTW: I have just created a groupe facebook for people who want to increase productivity, reach their dreams and take control of their lives. Interested?

Bennett Garner

Bennett Garner, Life lessons for the young and ambitious | Published on Idealist

Répondu il y a 105w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 140 et de vues de réponses 730.4k

Réponse d'origine: What are the best daily routines of highly productive people?

WARNING: If you study the habits of top performers, you may not like what you find.


What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

  • They only talk to people they know and like - Successful people value their time so highly that they don’t spend time with people they don’t love. They constantly remove people from the list when they don’t enjoy those people anymore, too - nobody wants to hear that, but it’s true.


What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

  • They a lot of spend time alone, at the expense of other fun activities - This is two parts: mindfulness and deep work.
    • Mindfulness = a habit what allows you to clear your head and think - could be running or a drinking tea or sitting alone in a dark room.
    • Deep work = hours of uninterrupted hard work on a difficult project.
  • For most successful people, this time alone means they will not schedule meetings, events, dinners, time with friends, etc. Everything gets sacrificed for the one goal.


What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

  • They read more and are smarter than you are - The good news is that with a growth mindset, you can eventually be as smart as them. Top performers read a lot to learn new things. I’ve found, on average, the most successful people read 50+ books per year. (Most successful people do not consider reading blogs or news as real reading.) That’s about a book per week.

    You should probably read twice that many just to catch up. Read 100 books/year and soon you’ll be an expert.


Pratique quotidienne

Here’s what I recommend.

This is so simple. Get a notebook. Every evening, think about the day ahead. What task, if completed, would ease your mind, forward your career/business, and add to your health the most. If you could only do one thing tomorrow, what would it be?

  1. Write that thing down in your notebook.
  2. Go to bed.
  3. Wake up tomorrow and do that thing before anything else.

Do not check your email. Do not text anyone. Do not post to Instagram. Do not check Reddit. Wake, shower, drink some coffee, and get to work on the one thing.

By doing the most important thing first, you’ve freed up the rest of your day. No matter what, today will have been productive all because of the thing I got completed before 10am.

Use the rest of your day to read your 100 books/year that you need to catch up on.

This front-loading of work is the key to building anything: a creative project, a business, an impressive intellect, a supportive network.



The benefits of one daily practice can be huge. After a year, you will have changed as a person. After 3 years, you will have reinvented yourself and become an expert.

Get the most important thing done first. Do that every day.

Meditation, reading, language learning, gratitude, writing, meeting new people. On any given day, these may be “the most important thing” – after a while they, too, can become everyday things.

Never sacrifice the most important thing. Get up earlier if you have to.

This will transform your life.


Rejoignez mon insider’s list for the young and ambitious - I only email once a month.

Read my essays on What important things does a 20-year-old need to know about money and finance? et How to Get Your Dream Job.

It’d mean a lot to me if you’d suivez moi sur Quora.

Mike Schoultz

Mike Schoultz, New age social marketer, and small business consultant helping with growth.

Répondu il y a 93w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 2.9k et de vues de réponses 3.9m

Réponse d'origine: What are the best daily routines of highly productive people?

Keep trying new things. There’s another phrase I think about quite often. Keep trying new things. On the surface, it sounds so normal – duh, of course, I should keep trying new things. But think about our daily schedule: Most of us go to work, come home, maybe work out or watch TV, then do it all over again…for the rest of our lives. Another thing to add to my list of needed productivity habits.

And yet, this list of tiny productivity habits has the potential to alter everything. So let’s examine these habits to see which ones can make a difference in your life.

Establish an early morning routine

Are you a morning person? I certainly am. Give me 1-2 hours of undisturbed time early in the morning and I am immensely more productive later in the day. How many of you nurture your bodies in the morning with water, a healthy breakfast, and light exercise? How about nurturing your minds with meditation, inspirational reading, or journaling? It is amazing what a difference these habits can make.

Focus on priorities

Ultra-productive people know what their “Most Important Task” is and work on it for one to two hours each morning, without interruptions. What task will have the biggest impact on reaching your goals? What accomplishment will get you more success in business metrics? That’s what you should dedicate your mornings to every day.

Avoid these: Bad Habits ... 14 That Can Get in the Way of Success

Have life balance

Intel’s Andy Grove once said, “There is always more to be done, more that should be done, always more than can be done.”

Highly successful people know what they value in life. Yes, work, but also what else they value. They know success is a ‘whole life’ metric. There is no right answer, but for many, these other values include family time, exercise, and giving back.

Writing it down at the time

Richard Branson has said on more than one occasion that he wouldn’t have been able to build Virgin without a simple notebook, which he takes with him wherever he goes. He knew the value of writing it down.

In one interview, Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis said, “Always carry a notebook. Write everything down... That is a million dollar lesson they don’t teach you in business school!”

Ultra-productive people free their minds by writing everything down as the ideas come to them.

Reduce attention to email

Ultra-productive people don’t “check” their e-mail throughout the day. They don’t respond to each vibration or ding to see who has intruded into their inbox.

Instead, like everything else, they schedule a time to process their emails quickly and efficiently. For some, that’s only once a day; for others, it’s morning, noon, and night. Manage your inbox, don’t let it manage you.

Skip meetings whenever you can

Mark Cuban once said, “Never take meetings unless someone is writing a check.” Meetings are notorious time killers.

They often start late, have the wrong people in them, meander around their topics, and run long. You should get out of meetings whenever you can and hold fewer of them yourself. If you do run a meeting, keep it short and to solve simple objectives.


Carefully watch things around you to help gain insights into, and ideas for, new ways of doing things. Pay particular attention to areas outside your natural areas of interest.

Don’t fear to say no

Billionaire Warren Buffet once said, “The difference between successful people and very successful people is that very successful people say ‘no’ to almost everything.” Remember, you only have 1,440 minutes in a day. Don’t give them away easily.

Not using the 80/20 rule

Known as the Pareto Principle, in most cases, 80 percent of results come from only 20 percent of activities. Ultra-productive people know which activities drive the greatest results. Focus on those and ignore the rest. You don’t get extra credit for solving trivial action items.

Delegate often

Ultra-productive people don’t ask, “How can I do this task?” Instead, they ask, “How can this task get done?” They take the I out of it as much as possible.

Ultra-productive people don’t have control issues, and they are not micro-managers. In many cases, good enough is, well, good enough.

Prenez soin de vous

You can’t make more minutes in the day, but you can increase your energy to increase your attention, focus, and productivity. Highly successful people don’t skip meals, sleep, or breaks in the pursuit of more, more, more.

Instead, they view food as fuel, sleep as recovery, and breaks as opportunities to recharge to get even more done.

Mike Schoultz est le fondateur de Digital Spark Marketing, agence de marketing numérique et de service à la clientèle. Avec ses nombreuses années d’expérience dans le domaine des affaires, il écrit sur des sujets liés à l’amélioration des performances des entreprises. Allez sur Amazon pour obtenir une copie de son dernier livre, Explorer le marketing du nouvel âge. Il se concentre sur l'utilisation des meilleurs exemples pour enseigner le marketing du nouvel âge… beaucoup à apprendre. Trouvez-les sur G+, Twitter, et LinkedIn

Vasu Taunk

Vasu Taunk, YouTuber at Hungry Neurons (2017-present)

Répondu il y a 34w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 106 et de vues de réponses 113.8k

Réponse d'origine: What are the best daily routines of highly productive people?

Highly productive people use their morning productively to get the most out of the day.

  • Practice silence - In this fast-paced world we are all running 24*7, not even sure what for. This rushing soon becomes a routine and we just start following it without giving it a conscious thought. Do you find yourself waking up, running to the office, coming back and then dozing off watching Netflix? If yes, then it's dangerous. Because it means that we are on auto-pilot and we just somehow go through our day without even once stopping to think what it is that we're really doing and what it is that we really want. To avoid working like a machine we need to spare a few minutes in the morning to just sit and relax, to meditate to focus, and to just feel the time passing by. This simple practice is known to significantly reduce our stress levels. And It also gives us the time to reflect on life.

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

  • Use visualization and positive affirmations - Even before you start a task you have to prepare your mind for it. You have to ensure that your mind doesn't give excuses like - "I'll talk to my boss tomorrow", "I can update my resume next week". How much ever simple this may sound, but when it comes to dreams and aspirations, just saying it out loud and visualizing it can take you a long way. Because your mind doesn't forget vivid images and by visualizing your dreams you are engraining that thought in your head. When the thought becomes permanent, your brain will not let you miss a single chance of making that thought a reality. You will subconsciously start making the right choices and grabbing the right opportunities all of which will take you one step further towards your dream. It will help you avoid distractions like a casual hangout or random scrolling of your Facebook feed.

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

  • Exercer - Our bodies are deteriorating. When Compared to our ancestors, today we already can do much less both physically and mentally. We don't have to walk miles every day to get water or physically work hard for most parts. We sit in front of a screen all day and that sure doesn't do our body any good. There is no muscular exercise or muscular development and as a result our bodies deteriorate, so much so, that even going on a small treck feels like climbing a mountain. Many of us have problems related to the spine and the neck at a very young age. And despite knowing that exercise will help us stay fit, we postpone it, we procrastinate and try to avoid it because it requires us to step out of our comfort zone. We need to find time to exercise at least 20-30 minutes a day. If you are not fit what are you going to do with all the money you earn?

What are three habits that highly productive people have on a daily basis?

  • Lues - Just like our physical body needs exercise to stay healthy, Our mind needs books. You can set a goal, every month, to change one aspect of your lifestyle you want to improve - increasing your earnings, improving your relationships or building your business. And it's easy to take the the first step. Just pick up a related book and read at least 10 pages per day. 10 pages in a day translates to about 18 books per year. While commuting, listen to an audiobook or to a channel such as this one, to increase your knowledge.
  • Écrire - I find this so very helpful. Write about anything, a business idea, a topic of interest, how you think and feel, what is the idea of success to you.. Rien. If you do this regularly you will soon become an idea machine and the quality of your ideas will keep improving. Writing these down gives your brain a positive affirmation and who knows you may actually start working on the idea you just wrote.

If you found the answer helpful, Upvote.

The animated summary for the book Morning Miracle will be out soon on our YouTube channel HungryNeurons. Meanwhile you can check out the other videos. Until then keep your brain hungry for more...

Lova Kremer

Lova Kremer, 2x Times TEDx Speaker on Work-Life balance for Overachievers

Répondu il y a 91w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 533 et de vues de réponses 1.2m


Some of the great minds talking about laziness:

"All of the biggest technological inventions created by man - the airplane, the automobile, the computer - says little about his intelligence, but speaks volumes about his laziness.” -Mark Kennedy

"I don't think necessity is the mother of invention. Invention, in my opinion, arises directly from idleness, possibly also from laziness - to save oneself trouble.” - Agatha Christie

"Periods of wholesome laziness, after days of energetic effort, will wonderfully tone up the mind and body.” - Grenville Kleiser

I wrote an article about how 1 day a week it’s important to deplug. I call it THE SILENT DAY , and it’s here that you force yourself to not do anything. A forced laziness in some way.

What I’m trying to say is that if you have days where you work hard, and suddenly you have those lazy days that you can’t control, that might be your body telling you that it’s time to relax.

Every great artist or scientist knows that if they are struggling with a question, story, or problem, that they should shift their mind from it. Relax and do nothing for a while, because it stimulates innovation and creativity.

So in short, there are some good stuff connected to laziness & it’s also possible that laziness is a scream of your body to relax for a second if you’re working hard. It’s also possible that it’s a scream to your mind that you aren’t going anywhere, which makes it a perfect time to reflect about your vision & goals.


Elon Musk knew that when he launched Tesla and Paypal that those services are needed in the world. But not some clumsy version of it, but one that the market WANTS. He listens to the market and creates a product that exceeds those expectations in an industry he wants to.

One of the most important phrases my mentor once told me is to not get romantic about how you earn your money. If you get too emotionally involved then you’ll have an ego, and you won’t cater to your clients needs when the market shifts.

Just listen around you and ask your clients or competitors, or even check google/ quora for the most searched problems, and cater to those problems.

Remember it’s a meritocracy so put your clients first.


I heard Mark Cuban once say in an interview that he buys toothpaste in bulk for the entire year or a couple of years.

Intelligent people realize that if they are stuck with a partner they have problems with in the beginning, that it will not last for 20 years. -> They think long-term and would rather break up, than stay in that relationship.

Intelligent people also realize that having a habit of exercise and stimulating their brain will make sure they are sharp in their old age as well. Because like the saying goes -> Old habits die hard. & You don’t want to end up with BAD old habits.

Another thing Intelligent people realize is that will power is limited1 , and that if they keep worrying about any of the above things than slowly but surely they will become miserable as most of their will-power will go into worrying about how the grass is greener on the other side, and how they could have made that mistake.

Now important to realize why will power is so limited. According to the above study conducted by Baumeister, will power was connected to glucose. Which of course is a limited resource, as your body can’t have unlimited glucose throughout the day. In any case, it’s an interesting read on how he conducted the research, and I hope so far it answers your question.

I also talk a lot about it in my 30 day work-life balance challenge , as I try to achieve the ultimate productivity out of health, wealth, and relationships by using interesting biohacker techniques I’ve discovered throughout my journey.

À votre santé,

Lova from Why Not 3?

Notes de bas de page

1 https://www.researchgate.net/pub...

Ravi Rana

Ravi Rana, Co Founder at Packhill (2017-present)

Répondu il y a 37w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 70 et de vues de réponses 269.7k

Réponse d'origine: What are the best daily routines of highly productive people?

The habits and routines of highly productive are generally the regular habits that everyone should have. They are so good at doing it daily that it help them through the day and make them successful. Habits you read everywhere and should be following daily. So here’s the list of some habits:

1. Create a Morning Routine
Start by building a habitual

Quelles sociétés de paiement en ligne proposent des options de distribution de paiement fractionnées ou chaînées? Outre PayPal, qui propose des structures de paiement pouvant prendre en charge des programmes d’affiliation?

Zalman Saadya Notik

Zalman Saadya Notik, Responsable du développement commercial @ Splash Payments (2016-present)

Mise à jour il y a 60w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 117 et de vues de réponses 82.7k

Je voudrais commencer par dire que je travaille actuellement pour Paiements Splash

En ce qui concerne les marchés / plates-formes, il existe quelques différences qui ne sont pas claires au début, mais qui peuvent devenir des obstacles majeurs à la croissance.

Pour répondre à votre question, je vais essayer de décomposer le pour et le contre afin que vous puissiez prendre une décision éclairée.

Je voudrais commencer par dire que les éléments suivants de 3 sont ce que vous devez prendre en compte lorsque vous choisissez un fournisseur de paiement pour une plateforme / un marché ou une solution en tout lieu dont vous aurez besoin pour fractionner les paiements entre plusieurs personnes:

  1. La possibilité de partager des fonds entre vous-même et la personne / entité qui organise la collecte de fonds.
  2. La possibilité de conserver des fonds si vous prévoyez d’exploiter une plateforme sujette aux conflits.
  3. Un moyen de réduire vos risques de rétrofacturation et de fraude.
  4. La possibilité de devenir éventuellement votre propre PayFac (facilitateur de paiement) lorsque vous atteignez le million de dollars 10 – 20 par mois.

Quelles sociétés de paiement en ligne proposent des options de distribution de paiement fractionnées ou chaînées? Outre PayPal, qui propose des structures de paiement pouvant prendre en charge des programmes d’affiliation?

Paiements Splash

  1. Tarification 2.9% + 0.30 $ par transaction.
  2. Ils ne tiendront jamais le propriétaire de la plate-forme pour responsable des débits compensatoires et des litiges.
  3. La possibilité de devenir votre propre Payfac (facilitateur de paiement) via leur société mère Payrix

Quelles sociétés de paiement en ligne proposent des options de distribution de paiement fractionnées ou chaînées? Outre PayPal, qui propose des structures de paiement pouvant prendre en charge des programmes d’affiliation?

Quelles sociétés de paiement en ligne proposent des options de distribution de paiement fractionnées ou chaînées? Outre PayPal, qui propose des structures de paiement pouvant prendre en charge des programmes d’affiliation?

  • Rayure Ils peuvent constituer une bonne option en utilisant leur fonction de compte géré qui vous permettra de fractionner les paiements entre vous et la personne / entité utilisant votre plate-forme. Il y a juste deux inconvénients que vous devriez probablement considérer avant de plonger directement dans.
  • Ils facturent tout un tas de frais pour les places de marché (comptes connectés) Stripe Connect: Prix

Les frais sont les suivants:

  • 2.9% + 0.30 $ par transaction.
  • 2 $ par compte actif par mois (tous les sous-marchands qui acceptent un paiement au cours d'un mois civil)
  • 0.25% sur tout le volume du compte. (Ceci est en plus du 2.9% + 0.30 $ par transaction)
  • 0.25 $ par paiement. (la plupart des marchés auront des paiements quotidiens pour chacun de leurs sous-marchands)
  • 1.5% pour tout débit de compte non associé à une transaction.

2. Ils tiendront le propriétaire de la plate-forme responsable des rétrofacturations. Cela peut vraiment nuire à vos résultats.

Quelles sociétés de paiement en ligne proposent des options de distribution de paiement fractionnées ou chaînées? Outre PayPal, qui propose des structures de paiement pouvant prendre en charge des programmes d’affiliation?

3. Ils ne vous offrent pas la possibilité de devenir votre propre Payfac (facilitateur de paiement) lorsque vous devenez suffisamment grand.

Quelles sociétés de paiement en ligne proposent des options de distribution de paiement fractionnées ou chaînées? Outre PayPal, qui propose des structures de paiement pouvant prendre en charge des programmes d’affiliation?

Braintree: Accepter les paiements en ligne et mobiles


Leur prix sur le marché semble être le 2.9 habituel% + 0.30 $ par transaction.

Quelles sociétés de paiement en ligne proposent des options de distribution de paiement fractionnées ou chaînées? Outre PayPal, qui propose des structures de paiement pouvant prendre en charge des programmes d’affiliation?


En ce qui concerne les rejets de débit et les litiges, le propriétaire de la plateforme est responsable.

Quelles sociétés de paiement en ligne proposent des options de distribution de paiement fractionnées ou chaînées? Outre PayPal, qui propose des structures de paiement pouvant prendre en charge des programmes d’affiliation?


Ils ne vous offrent pas actuellement la possibilité de devenir votre propre facilitateur de paiement.

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J'espère que c'était utile. N'hésitez pas à me contacter directement si vous avez d'autres questions. [email protected]

Cristina Cordova

Cristina Cordova, travaille chez Stripe

Répondu il y a 280w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 244 et de vues de réponses 1.2m

Stripe now has two options depending on what you want to do. If you're looking for a way to accept a payment (as an e-commerce platform or marketplace) and split the payment with one other party (usually the seller or service provider), you may want to try Stripe Connect.

We also have an API (https://stripe.com/blog/send-pay...) that allows you to collect funds processed via credit card into one Stripe account, and then programmatically send ACH bank deposits to multiple parties with a US bank account. It's intended for Stripe users who are providing some service or product for their customers, but need to be able to pay out third parties like sellers, vendors, or service providers.

Vous créez des charges (https://stripe.com/docs/tutorial...) comme d'habitude, mais au lieu que ces paiements soient automatiquement transférés sur votre compte bancaire, les fonds s'accumuleront sur votre compte Stripe. Vous pouvez ensuite collecter les informations de compte bancaire de vos utilisateurs et leur transférer des fonds avec un seul appel API.

Parmi nos utilisateurs, citons Lyft, Exec, SideCar, Postmates, Homejoy, Shoptiques, Kitchensurfing, HomePolish Some Some Style et Flightfox. N'hésitez pas à commenter ou à nous envoyer un courriel à [email protected] si vous avez des questions spécifiques sur la manière dont nous pouvons aider votre entreprise.

Katherine Pensatori

Katherine Pensatori, Chef de produit UniPay Gateway chez United Thinkers

Répondu il y a 2w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 996 et de vues de réponses 661.7k

There are several platforms available today which offer split payment functionality. In order to choose the most suitable solution, however, you’ll have to define the way in which you need your split funding model to work.

Split funding can be organized in several ways but the following are the most common:

  • The distribution of a payment amount can follow a previously defined rule. In this case, a pre-defined arrangement can be applied to a specific transaction.
  • Otherwise, the split information (a rule) can be supplied for each individual transaction as it goes through.

Another important factor that should be considered is the mechanism of “reverse split” that must be applied in the case of chargebacks and refunds.

PayPal Adaptive Payments was one of the first split funding systems that became available but many business owners state that when it comes to refunds (especially refunds issued long after the purchase), the system is not very efficient.

Here’s an example to illustrate that last point: A merchant processes a transaction worth $100 and then pays $20 to an affiliate. Later, the customer asks for a refund but the merchant is unable to retrieve the $20 paid to their affiliate because there is no efficient mechanism to reclaim those funds. This means that the merchant ultimately loses that $20.

If you are specifically interested in the technological aspect, you can explore the split funding logic (both per-transaction and pre-defined split mechanisms) that is available within the UniPay Payment Management platform (UniPay - Logiciel de passerelle de paiement).

You can learn more with these resources:

Est-il possible de recréer PayPal avec UniPay?

UniPay Integrated Gateway

Matt Collins

Matt Collins, Je lance PaymentBrain.co.uk et aide les gens à lancer et développer des entreprises en ligne.

Mise à jour il y a 30w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 85 et de vues de réponses 66.1k

Quelles sociétés de paiement en ligne proposent des options de distribution de paiement fractionnées ou chaînées? Outre PayPal, qui propose des structures de paiement pouvant prendre en charge des programmes d’affiliation?

À part PayPal, here are a few to have a look at:


Photo from Pexels.com: https://www.pexels.com/photo/adv...

Robert Oswald

Robert Oswald, Nombreuses années de paiements en ligne

Répondu il y a 122w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 565 et de vues de réponses 863k

Some options include Stripe Connect (previously mentioned), Braintree Marketplace, and Stripe Marketplace. Mangopay works in much (all?) of the EU.

There’s also the ability to sort of roll your own by combining an aggregator model with a payout system. For instance, you could get a merchant account from something like Worldpay that allows you to take payments on behalf of others. Then you would use something like Hyperwallet to manage your payouts.

The benefit of this is that most of the previously listed products do not have worldwide coverage. Stripe Connect is the exception, but the friction for sign up for a large marketplace might be too much to bear. That being said, to get a truly global marketplace or distributed payment system, you’ll have to piece things together from different companies.

Rob Israch

Rob Israch, CMO chez Tipalti (2014 présent)

Répondu il y a 9w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 175 et de vues de réponses 77.6k

Tipalti is the leading global payouts platform for affiliate programs and performance marketing networks. GoDaddy, Hayhouse, Zola, GlobalWideMedia, MUNDOmedia, A4D, and ClickDealer all use Tipalti to pay their global affiliates The solution provides affiliates with a choice of 6 different payment methods, including PayPal, in addition to covering 190 countries and 120+ currencies.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

David Lourne

David Lourne, Writer, Printer, ex-pilot, ex-Army, sarcastic observer.

Répondu il y a 43w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 607 et de vues de réponses 1.7m

Best fails?

I LOVE this one! ��

Look; I greatly admire the US military and I do understand that not all equipment in development performs to spec, but the M247 Sgt. York HAS to go down as one of the funniest fails in history!

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

Great looking machine, innit?

Built on an M-48 Patton hull, the Sgt. York was designed to be a radar-directed anti-aircraft gun that would support the relatively new M1 and M2 AFV’s in the late 1970’s.

It did not…er…have the success planned for by the US Army. In fact, its development was an amazing series of moderately hilarious disasters.

First of all, when design proposal and trials were undertaken, the US Army chose the York over the competition (a vehicle from General Electric based around the A-10’s massive GAU-8 gun); despite the fact that the General Electric machine outshot the Ford Sgt. York 19–9 out of 20 targets aimed at.

So - the US Army had their new SPAAG (Self Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun). You know - the one that placed dead-last in a competition of two. Time to develop it.

Things went downhill from there.

The M-247 was build around the battle-proven M-48 hull; a superb platform that had done the United States proud. But…the Sgt. York was designed to support M1 Abrams tanks - which had been built to replace the M-60; the tank that had replaced the M-48. The 247 couldn’t even come CLOSE to keeping up to the machines it was being built to protect. So…GREAT hull…for Vietnam.

The Sgt. York wielded twin 40mm. Bofors guns - a superb multi-purpose weapon…but the prototype was given warped, second-hand guns from Army storage rather than new. To put it bluntly, no matter how well the targeting system worked, those guns couldn’t hit squat.

But Hey! Good old American electronics, eh? How about that radar targeting system?!

Well, heh-heh-heh…this is where things get REALLY fun. Remember, this thing is designed to shoot down Russian attack aircraft like the Su-25 Frogfoot:

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

A Frogfoot, ruining someone’s day.

…and attack helicopters like the Mi-24 Hind:

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

I don’t care WHO you are; this thing is freakin’ scary.

Now - attack helos do NOT fly high and wait patiently for enemy AD to target them. They fly low, nap-of-the-Earth, sneaking through trees and remaining undercover until they pop-up to fire. Attack fighters do the same; just a few hundred miles an hour faster.

The Sgt. York had a minuscule little problem: its radar couldn’t discriminate between targets and trees. Raising the guns to fire made it worse: they blocked (or rather, interfered with) the targeting radar.


And, as it turns out, the turret was mounted on a…say it with me…M-48 hull; which means the turret traversed FAR too slowly to track fast-moving fighters. And..you know…was designed to fight in Vietnam; cold weather kinda buggered it up. It had a habit of leaking hydraulic fluid…not the best thing if you’re fighting in winter.


But…you know! That good old American knowhow; the radar would surely make up for these teensy little problems, right?

The system was demonstrated for a party of US and British Generals. A target was set up, the system (live and fully armed) was activated…and promptly whipped around to aim right at the reviewing stand. Several senior officers were injured as they dived for cover. The system was reset, aimed at the target…and blew holes in the ground just in front of the machine. After several attempts the machine lined up on trees, empty sky and in one unverified case seriously threatened the port-a-potty that had been set up (and was undoubtedly put to good use when this thing started aiming everywhere mais the target.)

The onboard ECCM (Electronic counter-countermeasures) system could be jammed with WWII technology.

The Army said it was because the machine had just been washed; the water fouled the electronics. Reporter George Easterbrook promptly quipped “Does it ever rain in Europe?”

But wait…it gets better. ��

The Army kept trying to fix the damned thing; it was, after all, their new accepté SPAAG. They tried for years to get it to hit n'importe quoi. Finally in 1984 they announced another round of testing, and invited the press to come watch.

It was hilarious - the platform simply could not hit a single moving target. They switched to a hovering target instead…and it couldn’t hit cette. Engineers hung a radar reflector off the target and tried again…no dice. They kept adding radar reflectors (essentially big flat pieces of tin foil) until they had quatre of the bloody things hanging off the target. The M-247 enfin saw the target, fired…and missed. It kept firing (and missing) until the onboard gunner helpfully turned the turret by hand a few degrees, striking the target.

But…not squarely. The blasted drone lurched to the side and testing officials blew it up remotely.

The test was declared a success. The press used a rather different word.

As reporter George Easterbrook said, it was a lot like watching bloodhounds tracking a man standing still in the middle of an empty parking lot covered in steaks.

50 M-247’s were produced for the US Army. 46 were rolled out to tank ranges and used for target practice.

Only four remain intact; on display at various museums.

Chuckle - here’s to you, Sergeant York!

Vandit Khandewal

Vandit Khandewal

Répondu il y a 42w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 86 et de vues de réponses 185k

The 1917 Halifax Explosion -

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

In the morning of December 6th 1917 the French cargo ship Mont-Blanc was carrying munitions from New York through Halifax ultimately to go to Bordeaux France. As it made its way into the Halifax Harbor it made a collision with the Norwegian vessel SS Imo.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

The Imo was travelling through the harbor at an accelerated rate; having had been delayed earlier in the day it was attempting to make up for time. Despite repeated attempts at advising the Imo to slow down, the captain disregarded them and continued through at high speeds.

The Imo would eventually meet its fate as it began towards a head on collision with the Mont-Blanc. At this point both ships were aware of the potential collision, and both had shut their engines off to prevent significant damage; a force stop wasn't used by the Mont-Blanc for fear that doing so may set off its cargo. Eventually the two ships were steered to the point where they had become parallel, the Mont-Blanc passing the Imo bow avoiding a collision.

The Imo, for what ever reason, decided to go in reverse, causing its head to swing into the Mont-Blanc. Initial damage wasn't severe; the problem though was that barrels of Benzol toppled over and began to spill out. As the Imo restarted its engines it flew out sparks, igniting the Benzol vapors.

The resulting explosion released an energy equivalent to 2.9 Kilotons of TNT - at the time the largest man made explosion until the development of Nuclear weapons. The explosion obliterated all nearby structures, completely destroying the nearby community of Richmond, killing around Two Thousand people and resulting in the injuries of another Nine Thousand. It was a blast so powerful that it ended up creating a Tsunami, which subsequently wiped out a native population who were living on Tuffs Cove. Pieces of the Mont-Blanc was scattered, travelling miles away from the initial blast area, its main gun reportedly travelling 3.5 miles north. It was so loud that the explosion was said to be heard over 100 miles away

All because the captain of the Imo was feeling a bit impatient that day.

Michael M. Ross

Michael M. Ross, I'm a historian of human misery, myth, and meaning.

Mise à jour il y a 41w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 1.2k et de vues de réponses 1.2m

"Men wanted for hazardous journey. Low wages, bitter cold, long hours of complete darkness. Safe return doubtful. Honour and recognition in event of success.” (Shackleton recruitment ad, probably apocryphal.)

It’s universally acclaimed to be one of the great survival stories of all time: Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914 to 1916. It exhibits the finest qualities of leadership, courage, and grit in a heroic age. But what about common sense and good judgment?

Shackleton’s plan was to traverse the Antarctic continent, on foot with skis and dogs. Britain had already lost the race for the South Pole to Norway. A veteran polar explorer, Shackleton recruited 28 men for the exploit and set sail from London as World War 1 began, on August 1, 1914. Many of the men were not well-suited to the mission, had little or no long-duration sea or ice experience, and one even suffered from extreme sensitivity to the cold.

When reaching the remote southern Atlantic island of South Georgia, in December (midsummer), the local whalers warned Shackleton that the ice pack in the Weddell Sea was much denser than usual and advised him to wait till the following year. He ignored their advice, and the Endurance - one of the sturdiest wooden sailing ships ever built (a three-masted barquentine custom-made by Norwegian shipbuilders) - edged further south despite the thickening sea ice.

Within a couple of weeks, in January 1915, it became beset, completely ice-bound, in the Weddell Sea, near Vahsel Bay, a few miles from the Antarctic mainland. The expedition would never even set foot upon it.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

The ice-bound Endurance

The crew stayed aboard the trapped ship through the entire Antarctic winter - occupying themselves through the months of darkness with their routine of maintaining the ship, playing games, singing, smoking, and performing silly skits to each other.

They did not abandon their home till October 27th, when it was about to be crushed by massive ice floes that had enveloped the ship. They experienced the full shock of the elements, beginning with a futile three-day march over the ice to establish a temporary camp, which was interrupted by a mad rush to recover more provisions from the ship before it went down.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

Dogs watching the end of the Endurance

The crew then embarked on a march to open water, an arduous journey of two months that required hauling three heavy lifeboats and all the equipment taken off the ship. On December 23rd, Shackleton abandoned the effort. They would make camp and wait for the late summer melt of the ice floes that surrounded them.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

Hauling one of the three lifeboats

What Shakelton hadn’t bargained for was the rate and direction of the rotating ice mass in the Weddell sea, which made his originally preferred island destinations impossible. (One was Paulet Island, where 12 years earlier he had stashed a substantial amount of food for another expedition.)

By March 30, 1916 all 69 dogs and the ship’s cat had been killed for food. The ice floe they were camped on split in two, separating them from their three lifeboats. Even as they were circled by “killer whales” (orcas), they were able to recover the boats. In an act of desperation, on April 9th, the whole crew went to sea in the three lifeboats in a quest for one of the most inhospitable islands in the world: Elephant Island. It was a 200-mile, weeklong voyage in open boats over treacherous waters to reach a tiny speck. If they missed it, they would die in the open ocean.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

Elephant Island

They survived the journey, but the island had nothing to offer but steep rocky ledges. At least it was solid ground - the first the men had stood on for 497 days, since the expedition had departed South Georgia. They found the one spot on the island that afforded some shelter and hunkered down for the southern winter (just north of the Antarctic circle). Within days Shackleton announced he would leave and attempt to sail to the distant South Georgia.

Shackleton and five men left with the largest lifeboat, which the carpenter had made more seaworthy by raising the boat’s sides and building an improvised deck. They set out for a hellish 17-day voyage of 800 nautical miles with treacherous conditions and navigation against adverse winds and currents. Storms drove them ashore on the wrong side of South Georgia.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

The lifeboat launch from Elephant Island

Shackleton decided their boat could not circumnavigate the island to the whaling station. Instead, he and two others set out by foot on something like a suicide mission to cross the never-charted and mountainous interior of the island: a 26-mile trek over icy peaks. Against the odds, they completed the journey in 36 hours with life and limb intact - and without sleep, which would have probably killed them due to extreme exposure. They each recounted a feeling of having an invisible guide.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

The peaks of South Georgia Island

As they drew close to the tiny whaling station, they heard a steam whistle blow, and completed their journey, but not before contending with a hazardous frozen waterfall. They were greeted with amazement by the inhabitants. Soon afterwards, the three who had been left behind were rescued.

What about the 23 men on Elephant Island? They were still there and alive despite frostbite and minor amputations by the crew’s medic. They were able to sustain themselves and keep warm - thanks to the abundant supply of unfortunate seals who could be bludgeoned on the rocky shore. This supplied adequate meat and blubber for fires. But Shackleton had no idea whether or not his men were alive.

After recovering for three days, on May 30th, he chartered a British ship to go to Elephant Island, but it was stopped by ice 100 miles short of the island. The Uruguay government loaned a survey ship, which came within sight of Elephant Island before pack ice drove it back. Independently, a British chartered schooner set out from Punta Arenas, Chile. It got within 100 miles of Elephant Island before storms and ice forced it to return.

On August 25th, Chilean authorities loaned a small steamer, which set sail to the island with Shakleton aboard. The Elephant Island survivors spotted the ship and signaled her with a huge blubber fire. The men were rescued after 131 days on the frigid island. Every member of the crew had survived.

However, that’s not the complete story. Unfortunately, there’s another one, far less known, of the support expedition on the other side of Antarctica that had been waiting for the arrival of Shackleton’s party for two years.

Oblivious to the fate of the Endurance, Shackleton's second team had anchored in the Ross Sea and had cached more than 4,000 pounds of provisions on the Ross Ice Shelf to supply Shackleton’s polar trek. They didn’t learn of the futility of their heroic efforts under terrible conditions until 14 months later, long after Shackleton rescued his crew. The Ross Sea Party had marched 1,500 miles to accomplish the only successful part of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. The cost: Three lives including the team’s leader.

That’s the history. Now you decide: Greatest survival story or Epic Fail?

Note: The expedition was photographed in exquisite detail by crew member Frank Hurley, an Australian photographer. (These and many more pictures are available on Mashable.)

Markee Jackson

Markee Jackson, living history everyday

Répondu il y a 42w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 112 et de vues de réponses 2.3m

The French Invasion of Russia

One of the most epic fails in history occurred in the year 1812 when Napoléon Bonaparte tried to lead the Grande Armée, the strongest military in continental Europe, into Russia in the dead of winter.

On June 24, 1812, Napoleon, along with 400,000–700,000 men, crossed the Niemen River into Russian owned Poland and began their march towards the Russian Imperial Army. In about six months, due to a shortage of food, The Battle of Borodino, freezing temperatures, diseases, etcetera that number had dwindled to less than 100,000 (some reports state 20,000).

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

The reasoning behind Napoleon's invasion was simple: teach Russia respect. Napoleon felt disrespected by Czar Alexander I for a variety of reasons, some of those reasons include: trading with the British, putting a tax on French goods, preventing Napoleon from marrying his older sister The Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna and his younger sister Anna Pavlovna of Russia.

When Napoleon declared war on Russia, Alexander knew his forces had no shot against Napoleon head-on; Napoleon’s forces outnumbered his 3–1, so the Russian Imperial Army used the Russian weather to their advantage. Every time Napoleon’s forces would get close, the Russian forces would retreat deeper and deeper into the heart of Russia. Due to the retreats, the war lasted longer than Napoleon expected.

Normally if rations were running low Napoleon and his men would just live off the land; but, Russia was different. The Russians developed a scorch earth policy--they burned the land around them as they retreated. This made it difficult for Napoleon and his men to find supplies and as a result, his men grew weaker and weaker.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

On October 19, after capturing the now abandoned Moscow, Napoleon realized that Russia wasn’t going to surrender and that his army could not survive the winter. As a result, Napoleon ordered his troops to retreat to France; but, even that had its complications.

Due to Russian troops blocking his original retreat route, Napoleon and his troops were forced to retrace their steps, and as a result, were forced to endure the full effect of a Russian winter.

High-winds, snow, sub-zero temperature, a lack of food, and the Russians on their tail led to thousands of men and horses dying daily as a result. The cold was so bad that some soldiers would climb into the carcasses of dead horses to keep warm.

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

On December 5th, after realizing the severity of a potential coup d’etat, Napoleon abandoned his army. In the coming months Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Austria joined Great Britain in their efforts to take down Napoleon. In March 1814 Paris was captured, and by April 1814 Napoleon was forced to surrender and was exiled in Elba.

You may think that there was no way Napoleon could’ve known that his army would’ve been in Russia for that long, and that is correct; but, three days after arriving in Russia a cold rain, sleet, and hail storm killed a large number of his troops and horses. At that moment Napoleon could have retreated; but, he didn't.

“I have come once and for all to finish off these barbarians of the North,”

“The sword is now drawn. They must be pushed back into their ice, so that for the next 25 years they no longer come to busy themselves with the affairs of civilized Europe.”

Trying to invade Russia during the winter led to the fall of one of the greatest military generals of all time in Napoleon. It can also be argued that trying to invade Russia during the winter marked the beginning of the end for Charles XII (the downfall of the Swedish Empire) and Hitler (proof that the German army wasn’t invincible).

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

Kang-Lin Cheng

Kang-Lin Cheng, I'm just some guy

Répondu il y a 42w · Voté par

Yao Zhan, Masters History, La Trobe University (1997) · Author has 326 answers and 1.7m answer views

The Fort Tumu Incident(土木之變): This was an episode of the Ming dynasty in the 1400’s where the Oirat Mongols captured the Ming Emperor. The incident itself was an epic fail, but the story that came afterward is possibly even worse.


It is the early to mid-1400’s in China. After almost 100 years of Mongol rule over China (where the Han Chinese were literally treated like second-class citizens), the Chinese finally regained their hard-fought independence in 1368, when the Ming dynasty was established. The Chinese were able to drive the Mongols back into Mongolia, but failed to conquer the area known as modern-day Mongolia. As such, the Mongols never gave up their dreams of reconquering China.

The Mongols then split into two major groups. One group was composed of Mongols who were the direct descendants of Genghis Khan and his clan. The others were not. Because Genghis Khan was so well respected, only the clans that claimed to be his descendants were considered to be worthy of the title “Great Khan”. The Oirat Mongols were not the descendants of Genghis Khan, but they still had a lot to prove on the battlefield.

The leader of the Oirat Mongols in this story was a man named Esen (也先). During this time, in addition to border conflicts with Ming China, Ming China also imposed a number of unfair trade practices with the Mongols (think Trump when he said China’s raping America on trade, only substituting America with the Mongols). As a result, Esen led his men to pillage and loot the Chinese frontier towns as a form of protest. Needless to say, the Ming court could not overlook this, and decided to send a punitive expedition to punish the Oirats for their treachery.

The Ming Dynasty At That Time

The emperor at this time would be known as Emperor Yingzong (英宗) or Zhengtong (正統).

Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

Emperor Yingzong was still a boy when he became the Emperor (the portrait of him above was obviously painted much later). As a young boy, he looked up to a eunuch by the name of Wang Zhen.

Now, a side note about eunuchs. These are men who have had their male reproductive parts removed, and the only job they could get is to do menial work in the palace. The only other people who do menial work in the palace are the palace maidens. By removing the eunuch’s ability to sexually reproduce, the court effectively prevented any illegitimate offsprings that might have came from the eunuch’s horsing around. Eunuchs constantly suffer humiliation that they are not real men, and if they leave the palace, nowhere in society would accept them. As a result, eunuchs were doomed to basically be the janitors and secretaries of the palace for their entire lives.

There was, however, one way for them to escape their fate. Being an emperor of China is a full time job, and because the throne is hereditary, the emperors must have a lot of sons. But with such a demanding job, most emperors don’t have time to be a good father to all of his sons. As a result, many times, eunuchs would step in and fulfill the role of being a father to the young princes. If the prince they pampered eventually became the emperor of China, he may allow the eunuchs that raised him to have unofficial power and influence of the court. This was the case with Wang Zhen; he was seen as the father that Emperor Yingzong never had. As a result, Wang Zhen committed all sorts of wicked deeds.


Wang Zhen advised Emperor Yingzong to lead all of the elites of the Ming army to fight against the Oirats head on during late-summer/early autumn of 1449. Wang also wanted to go along the expedition, along with the young emperor. Almost everyone in court opposed this, but Yingzong overruled everyone else’s concern because he wanted Wang Zhen to be happy.

As a result, the Ming had an army of hundreds of thousands, and both the Emperor and his trusted eunuch were included. Historians believed that Wang Zhen’s hometown was probably located near the border with Mongolia, and Wang wanted to show his clan that he has close relationships with the emperor, and how he essentially had the whole army under his thumb. However, an army with hundreds of thousands of people is very difficult to feed, and the logistics were an absolute nightmare. The army ran out of food and water quickly, and being the desert, it was difficult to find food and water.

Along the way, the Ming army was ambushed by the Oirats. The Ming army panicked and began to retreat in complete chaos. Wang Zhen ordered the troops to camp at the semi-abandoned Fort Tumu, despite the fact that his generals suggested to camp out at a base with reliable access to drinking water.

The Oirats knew the Chinese were running out of water, so they feigned retreat and intentionally lured the Chinese to a freshwater spring. When the Ming troops saw freshwater, they immediately dived in and started drinking (after all, even the most elite warriors need water to survive). Just when the Chinese were getting comfortable, the Oirats surrounded the Ming army and closed in on the massacre. Despite having an army hundreds of thousands strong, almost all of the Chinese troops were killed by just a few thousand Oirats. The Chinese troops killed Wang Zhen in anger, but by then, it was too late. Emperor Yingzong was captured and forced to become a prisoner of war.


This technically concludes the incident at Fort Tumu (which as you could see, was an epic fail), but the story continues (and trust me, the biggest failures are yet to come. Yes, échecs, plural).

After losing the emperor, the Ming dynasty was in deep trouble. Almost all of the elite troops were dead, the emperor was a hostage, and the entire country had lost its will to fight. It truly looked like the Chinese’s independence from the Mongols were short-lived.

However, thankfully, the Chinese had a very smart and talented minister named Yu Qian (于謙). He argued that everyone should proceed with a cool head, and that not all was lost. First, he had Yingzong’s younger brother, Daizong, be brought to the throne. He later argued that China is not composed of one man, but instead, a nation of its citizens.

As such, when Esen of the Oirats demanded ransom for Yingzong, the Ming court flat-out refused all of his demands. Yu Qian proclaimed that Ming China will not sacrifice everything to save one man, and that China had a new emperor under Daizong. Esen was completely shocked by this response, as he had not anticipated the Chinese to abandon their captured emperor so quickly. As a result, he attempted to invade Beijing, but his invasion was defeated.

As a result, Esen decided to let internal disputes destroy China. He released Emperor Yingzong free of charge back to the Chinese in 1450. Needless to say, it was a very awkward family reunion. Yu Qian and Emperor Daizong decided to imprison Yingzong in order to prevent any disputes to the throne.

However, despite being imprisoned, Yingzong somehow managed to gather supporters and raise an army to take back the throne. Yingzong struck the jackpot when Daizong’s son suddenly died of illness, and Daizong lost all of the will to live. Yingzong retook the throne and became one of the very few men in Chinese history to rule twice as an Emperor.

As for the Oirats? Well, they were hoping infighting between the two Chinese emperors would tear the country apart, in which they would seize their chance to conquer China. Ironically, it was the Oirats that fell into infighting instead. Apparently, releasing such a valuable hostage, such as the emperor of China, free of charge turned out to be a very unpopular move as a leader. He was assassinated in 1455, and the Oirat Mongols would not threaten China again until their descendants, the Dzungars, rise about 300 years later.


I really do not know who was the biggest failure in this story: Emperor Yingzong, Wang Zhen, Emperor Daizong, or Esen. All of them had such hilariously bad shortcomings, that this whole thing sounds like a stupid story written by a Chinese nationalist in the Ming dynasty (kind of like some of the anti-Japanese war dramas being produced today). Yet, it’s all true. Everything I’ve listed actually happened.

In the end, the reason why Emperor Yingzong emerged victoriously wasn’t because he was a great and talented man; it was because his opponents (Daizong, Esen, etc.) were all worse.

As such, the moral of the story is: sometimes, the only reason you’ve won isn’t because you’re better than your opponents; sometimes, the only reason you’ve won is because your opponents SUCK way more than you do.

,Quels sont les échecs les plus épiques de l'histoire?

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