En tant qu'investisseur, si vous pouviez poser aux fondateurs une seule question avant de prendre une décision de financement, quelle serait-elle?

Terrence Yang

Terrence YangxWall Street VP, directeur, avocat principal. xMD @ $ 1B + AUM.

Mise à jour il y a 44w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 2.1k et de vues de réponses 6.7m

"Comment construisez-vous un large fossé protégeant un château précieux?"

En fin de compte, la réponse à cette question - plus le talent et l’intégrité des fondateurs, ma capacité à comprendre la réponse du fondateur et un prix raisonnable - sont tout ce qui compte pour moi.

Toutes les autres questions que je pose sur les besoins des clients, les opportunités de marché, l'équipe, l'adéquation entre le produit, le pouvoir du fournisseur, etc., ne sont que des moyens de m'informer de votre réponse à cette question.

Où puis-je trouver ces idées folles et ces analogies étranges? De nul autre que Warren Buffett (valeur nette de 75 milliards), PDG de Berkshire Hathaway (valorisation de 415 milliards). Il a dit:

En tant qu'investisseur, si vous pouviez poser aux fondateurs une seule question avant de prendre une décision de financement, quelle serait-elle?

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/e...

"Château très précieux”Se réfère à une machine à sous. Comment votre startup va-t-elle générer beaucoup de bénéfices si elle le souhaite (par opposition à une part de marché croissante, etc.)

"Fossé incassable"Est un terme Buffett qui signifie que votre produit et / ou service est tellement différencié que vous avez pas de vrais concurrents directs au fil du temps. Dans le monde technologique en rapide évolution, cela peut vous obliger à changez plus vite et soyez plus intelligent que vos concurrents actuels ou futurs afin de maintenir ou d'augmenter vos différenciateurs au fil du temps.

Cela nécessite à la fois de bien deviner et d’expédier, d’essayer et d’itérer (ou de pivoter) rapidement.

Construire un fossé infranchissable signifie que vous faites une version extrême de:

En tant qu'investisseur, si vous pouviez poser aux fondateurs une seule question avant de prendre une décision de financement, quelle serait-elle?

Par exemple:

  • Palantir Technologies est utilisé par le gouvernement des États-Unis et par d’autres clients délicats et coûteux, aux cycles de vente longs et difficiles, qui ne changent pas de fournisseur facilement.
    • Un bon ami à moi est un procureur fédéral - Palantir lui fait gagner beaucoup de temps en parcourant des pétaoctets de fichiers et en trouvant des courriels spécifiques ou d’autres documents pouvant être pertinents pour la constitution d’un dossier contre un éventuel défendeur.
  • Apple a peut-être un fossé infranchissable, car elle a généré tous les bénéfices des smartphones, malgré une part de marché peu impressionnante. Comment Apple a absorbé 104 en% des bénéfices de son smartphone au dernier trimestre
    • La société Buffett a acheté encore plus d'actions Apple récemment.
  • Google et Facebook peuvent avoir des fossés incassables à cause de toutes les données de nos recherches, de l'utilisation de la carte, des courriels, de l'activité de Facebook, etc. Ces deux revenus génèrent tous les revenus de la publicité numérique, même s'il semble y avoir des milliers de startups adtech. Voici comment Google et Facebook ont ​​pris sur l'industrie de la publicité numérique

Je parie qu'un seul des fondateurs de 10,000 peut donner une réponse crédible à ma question, car le fondateur doit:

  • Expliquez ce que la startup est en train de construire de manière compréhensible.
  • Expliquez un besoin réel que vos concurrents n'ont pas rencontré et que le fondateur a identifié.
  • Expliquez le chemin à suivre pour construire un fossé infranchissable, en utilisant les éléments que j'ai identifiés ci-dessus ou quelque chose de «nouveau» mais convaincant.
  • Expliquez de manière convaincante pourquoi le fondateur est mieux à même de prédire l'avenir pertinent. Pourquoi la fondatrice peut-elle deviner l'avenir mieux que ses concurrents? Pourquoi la fondatrice peut-elle deviner ce dont ses clients ont besoin mieux que ses concurrents?
  • Bonus: Expliquez comment le fondateur va exécuter et construire, mesurer, apprendre (Pointe du chapeau: Eric Ries (entrepreneur, auteur)) plus rapide que vos concurrents. Elon Musk peut le faire. Presque personne d'autre ne le peut.
  • Expliquez vos avantages très injustes. Cela peut inclure une expertise et une créativité en matière de produits, de réglementation et de conformité, une technologie «dure», des effets de mise en réseau, une stratégie de marque, des fonctionnalités, une acquisition de données exclusive, une analyse de données supérieure, des informations secrètes et toute autre recette secrète qui vous aidera à atteindre vos objectifs.
    • Les grands fondateurs parlent souvent d'avantages imaginaires tels que leurs conseillers fantastiques, leur excellente presse, leurs adeptes des médias sociaux, leur travail acharné, leur travail intelligent, la mise en réseau et les brevets en instance.
  • Parlez en profondeur de la pièges, risques, obstacles, contingences et futurs différents qui peut survenir et Expliquez pourquoi vous pensez que x va arriver, mais si ce n'est pas le cas, y est le plus probable et comment vous prévoyez pour chacun.
  • Pour être persuasif, affichez la bonne combinaison et le niveau de bon sens, de vision, d'exécution et de confiance. Si vous ne pouvez pas programmer, vous feriez mieux de savoir vendre ou obtenir les bonnes choses dès que possible.
  • Persuade-moi sans t'halluciner ni te faire des illusions.
    • Avez-vous même exécuté quelque chose? Parce que cette phrase «Une vision sans exécution est une hallucination» est vraie.
    • Vous êtes une startup. Par définition, vous avez zéro fossé.
    • La droite ajustement du marché fondateur (ce qui signifie que vous êtes censé construire sur le marché que vous avez choisi) est magique. Regardez Elon Musk. Jamais pris un cours de génie aérospatial. Est-ce que nous avons dépensé des sommes pendant des années? Veut démarrer une start-up spatiale, aller sur Mars et y mourir? Je voulais aussi être astronaute une fois, quand j'avais 4. Mais La vision et l'ambition d'Elon sont si grandes et il est tellement convaincant qu'il attire un talent incroyable à SpaceX. Même si SpaceX paie beaucoup moins cher que le marché et travaille beaucoup plus sur 5X que d’autres sociétés aérospatiales comme Raytheon et Boeing.
  • Lorsque vous répondez à ma question, je dois pouvoir comprendre ce que vous dites. Si je peux utiliser mes propres mots et expliquer de manière convaincante ce que votre réponse à mon conjoint est convaincant, je pourrai investir. Sinon je ne le ferai pas. C'est un peu ridicule de ne laisser qu'une seule question à l'investisseur, mais j'essaie de m'en tenir aux paramètres.
  • Le fondateur doit faire preuve d'honnêteté et d'intégrité tout au long de ce processus. Si vous omettez des informations importantes avant même que j'investisse, vous le ferez certainement après avoir mon argent. Je n'investis pas. Si je ne suis pas sûr que vous soyez véridique ou même si je pense que vous l'êtes probablement mais que vous avez des doutes, je n'investis pas.
  • Si la évaluation est trop élevé (très probablement si vous pouvez donner une réponse convaincante à cette question dans un marché mousseux), alors je n’investis pas.
  • Ci-dessus vient directement de Charlie Munger, vice-président de Berkshire Hathaway. Il a dit:
    • "Nous devons traiter des choses que nous sommes capable de comprendre et puis, une fois que nous avons passé ce filtre, nous devons avoir une entreprise avec certaines caractéristiques qui nous donnent une avantage concurrentiel durable et eux, bien sûr, nous préférerions grandement gestion en place avec beaucoup d'intégrité et de talent et finalement, aussi merveilleux soient-ils, cela ne vaut pas un prix infini. Nous devons avoir un prix qui a du sens et donne une marge de sécurité compte tenu des vicissitudes normales de la vie. " Entretien de Charlie Munger avec la BBC (2012) [10: 56] - Vintage Value Investing

Termes Nit-Picking

Pourquoi ne pas utiliser le terme «monopole légal”? Parce que presque tous les fondateurs de startups connaissent ce terme Peter Thiel maintenant.

De moins en moins de fondateurs savent ce que «fossé incassable» signifie. Parmi ceux qui ne savent pas ce que signifient des fossés incassables, seuls les plus grands demanderont ce que cela signifie s'ils ne sont pas sûrs. Les non-grands fondateurs font beaucoup d'assomption. C'est donc un bon filtre pour moi.

Je pourrais utiliser des termes tels que «barrières à la concurrence», utilisés par un autre ancien membre de la mafia de PayPal, Max Levchin. C'est un terme moins populaire qui ne donne pas un aussi bon résultat de recherche Google si un fondateur rentre chez lui et le recherche.

La «défense à long terme» est un excellent terme Leo Polovets les usages. Moins visuel.

«Avantage concurrentiel durable» est l'expression classique du professeur de la Harvard Business School Michael Porter terme.

Si un fondateur comprend vraiment ce que signifie «fossé indescriptible», nous pouvons gagner beaucoup de temps. Le fondateur peut éviter de parler en utilisant des mots à la mode, comme le fait de lever des fonds. Le fondateur est beaucoup plus susceptible d’éviter des choses moins importantes comme le piratage de croissance, le marketing de contenu, le recrutement d’adeptes des médias sociaux, la prise de parole lors d’événements, la promotion d’excellents conseillers qui consacrent des heures 4 à votre démarrage, une presse fantastique, l’obtention de 1% d’un grand marché, etc. .

Au lieu de cela, nous pouvons parler d'un besoin de leurs clients auquel les concurrents de la startup ne répondent pas. Nous pouvons concentrez-vous sur les véritables obstacles rencontrés par les startups et sur les raisons pour lesquelles elles n'expédient pas plus rapidement, sur ce qu'elles ont appris en discutant avec des clients payants, etc.

** Pour le SaaS et les startups associées, demande juste quoi Jason M. Lemkin demandé dans son excellente réponse à cette question. La réponse de Jason M. Lemkin à En tant qu'investisseur, si vous pouviez poser aux fondateurs une seule question avant de prendre une décision de financement, quelle serait-elle? Je ne connais pas le SaaS. Vous n'avez probablement pas non plus. Du moins pas comme lui.

Si vous êtes un fondateur et que vous construisez un fossé infranchissable dans un marché précieux, envoyez-moi un message. Autrement, "je vais te motiver !!!"

Remarque:

J'investis dans les startups comme Warren Buffett s'il était obligé de faire des investissements providentiels, avait ma valeur nette beaucoup plus petite avec mon cercle limité de compétences en investissement, droit, finance, entrepreneuriat et écriture).

J'adore le fait que l'approche de Buffett ne soit toujours pas vraiment enseignée à l'école, sauf dans certains endroits comme la Columbia Business School. (Son approche n'a pas été enseignée à la Harvard Business School lorsque je me suis fait enregistrer dans le même registre.)

En tant qu'investisseur, si vous pouviez poser aux fondateurs une seule question avant de prendre une décision de financement, quelle serait-elle?

Plus de lecture:

Leo PolovetsLa valeur des données, partie 1: Utilisation des données comme avantage concurrentiel

Ma réponse à Quelles entreprises de technologie ont le plus grand fossé, tel que défini par Warren Buffett?

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/e...

Avertissement:

Je possède des actions dans Berkshire Hathaway et Apple.

Jason M. Lemkin

Jason M. Lemkin, Fonds SaaStr. Co-fondateur / PDG d’EchoSign (accepté par Adobe),

Répondu il y a 91w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 2.9k et de vues de réponses 42m

"À quoi ressemble l'entreprise à $ 100m dans ARR?"

Parce que je peux comprendre le reste.

  • Je peux savoir si le fondateur est incroyable. Sans demander.
  • Je peux savoir si l'espace est intéressant. Sans demander.
  • Je peux déterminer si la traction est réelle ou illusoire. Sans demander.

Ce que je ne peux pas comprendre, c'est Comment une petite start-up va arriver à $ 100m (je ne vois pas l’avenir), et si les fondateurs vraiment essayons de construire quelque chose d'énorme.

Une réponse claire, réfléchie et directe ici me mène assez bien à Oui.

S'ils trébuchent.

C'est fondamentalement toujours non.

Paul Davies

Paul Davies, PDG et éditeur de Bite-Sized Books

Répondu il y a 81w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 1.1k et de vues de réponses 1.5m

Je n'ai jamais posé que des questions au nom d'investisseurs potentiels, mais la question que je pose toujours est très simple et délibérément. Une partie du problème avec les questions habituelles est que toute personne sensée aura des réponses préparées. C'est seulement quand je suis déconcerté que j'en dévoile plus que je ne le souhaite - et je pense qu'il est utile de voir ce que les gens pensent de la question, car ils ne s'y attendent pas.

Ma question est: Pourquoi?

Je laisse à la personne le soin de décider de la question - et je trouve que c'est toujours révélateur et utile.

Je comprends les critiques qui peuvent être faites - que je parais jouer des tours psychologiques, mais en réalité je ne le suis pas. Je demande à la personne, par exemple, quelles sont ses priorités, je lui demande ce qui la motive, en demandant quel résultat elle anticipe - mais en étant non spécifique, cela lui donne une réelle chance de s’engager avec moi - et c’est ce que je veux voir. Je n'en ai pas bonnes réponses - seulement un intérêt dans la façon dont ils répondent et sur quoi ils répondent.

Sean Byrnes

Sean Byrnes, PDG de démarrage, investisseur providentiel, mentor et coach chez 3, accélérateur de démarrage exceptionnel.

Répondu il y a 78w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 244 et de vues de réponses 339.6k

Jusqu'où l'avez-vous fait sans aucun investissement?

La véritable mesure du succès d’un fondateur est sa persistance face à des obstacles impossibles et son ingéniosité sans ressources. Les grands fondateurs trouveront le moyen de progresser malgré tout, ce qui vous indique ce que vous devez savoir.

C'est également pour cette raison que les investisseurs préfèrent investir une fois que vous avez montré à quel point vous pouvez vous débrouiller seul au lieu d'attendre d'avoir un investissement avant de continuer. Si vous attendez que les investisseurs vous aident à démarrer, vous risquez de ne jamais vous lancer.

Ryan Walsh

Ryan Walsh, Partenaire chez FLOODGATE (2016-present)

Répondu il y a 73w

J'ai une question qui motive chaque première réunion.

Quelles sont les informations sur les produits, le marché et la distribution qui vous amènent à penser que vous pouvez gagner dans la course pour faire de cette idée un succès à grande échelle?

J'investis en fonction des personnes, de la perspicacité et de l'exécution. Avec cette question, j'ai une idée de la capacité des fondateurs à:

  • élaborer des stratégies / penser
  • conte
  • enfiler l'aiguille d'une grande opportunité de marché
  • comprendre leur public / clients
  • croître

John Schenk

John Schenk, CFO chez Sensay; Fondateur de Taffy

Répondu il y a 73w

"Qu'as-tu fait pour t'améliorer dans la vie?"

Tout le monde peut avoir de la chance, mais vous n'investissez pas dans la chance. Je recommanderais donc d’apprendre le plus possible sur les fondateurs eux-mêmes.

Nous savons tous que les bonnes idées peuvent échouer si elles sont mal exécutées. Pour vous assurer de meilleures chances sur votre investissement, recherchez les bonnes idées développées par une équipe solide. Personnellement, je trouve un mélange d'attributs personnels suivants très convaincant chez un entrepreneur:

  • Désir de s'améliorer continuellement à travers l'éducation, les objectifs et les défis auto-imposés, le désir personnel de plus de connaissances, de réalisations, etc.
  • Caractéristiques de la personnalité - p. Ex., Motivation, passion, leadership, mentalité de propriétaire, détermination, résilience, débrouillardise, etc.
  • Capacité prouvée à surmonter l'adversité.
  • Intelligence générale et capacité à communiquer.

Vous investissez dans les gens, pas dans le produit, comme on dit. Donc, poser des questions telles que «Quels sont les avantages de votre produit / service par rapport à la concurrence» est une myopie. Aller au-delà de ça.

Est-ce que Ripple vaudra beaucoup d'argent dans le futur?

Priyanka Suman

Priyanka Suman, Passionné de cryptomonnaie | BlogOrganization.com

Répondu il y a 40w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 435 et de vues de réponses 286.7k

Ripple est une crypto-monnaie qui est de plus en plus adoptée par les banques et les sociétés de cartes de crédit en tant que réseaux de paiement. Cette altcoin a été publiée dans 2012, qui permet des transactions financières mondiales sécurisées, instantanément et presque gratuites, quelle que soit leur taille, sans rejet de débit. La récente acceptation par trois des grandes sociétés japonaises de cartes de crédit qui ont décidé d'utiliser la technologie de Ripple a donné un coup de fouet à la valeur marchande de Ripple. L'ondulation boursière la plus élevée des dernières heures 24 (~ 25-30%) provient de la bourse sud-coréenne Bithumb et de la bourse hongkongaise Bitfinex, comme sur 29th December 2017. Cette popularité soudaine pourrait être due au projet de nouveaux systèmes de paiement numérique annoncé avec l’aide de SBI Ripple Asia à Tokyo, de Woori Bank et de Shinhan Bank de la Corée du Sud. Cela aidera à envoyer rapidement de l'argent à ces deux pays. Le paiement utilisera le réseau de blockchain Ripple. Le principal avantage de la passerelle de paiement de Ripple est qu’elle permet aux paiements transfrontaliers d’être terminés en quelques secondes 10-15 par rapport aux jours ouvrables 2-3 via le réseau SWIFT. Ripple a également conclu un accord financier avec les institutions financières 100 afin d’utiliser sa plate-forme pour le transfert d’argent à travers la frontière. Ripple a maintenant atteint la position 2nd dans la capitalisation boursière dépassant Ethereum. Si ces faits vous passionnent, lisez alors les réponses à mon autre question de Quora sur les options d’achat de Ripple. Cependant, tous les actifs numériques sont très risqués pour investir.

Prashant

Prashant, ancien stagiaire chez Bajaj Finserv (2018)

Répondu il y a 41w

  • La demande extrêmement forte de la part de la Corée et du Japon, alors que les grandes banques du pays commençaient à utiliser la technologie des ondulations et que de nombreuses actualités créent une tendance au Japon et en Corée du Sud.
  • Les spéculations selon lesquelles des échanges importants comme celui de la monnaie vont créer des répercussions qui vont certainement faire monter le prix. Le prix pourrait doubler si Coinbase ajoute des répercussions à leur échange.
  • Encore une fois, la tendance et la croissance attirent énormément de nouveaux investisseurs et de plus en plus de personnes sautent dans le train d’ondulations.
  • Hier, chef de la direction de coinsquare, une bourse canadienne a annoncé qu'elle allait bientôt ajouter des répercussions à sa bourse, ce qui entraînerait une nouvelle hausse des prix.

Alors, l'ondulation vaut-elle beaucoup d'argent?

Cela dépend de nombreux facteurs. Si Coinbase ajoute des ondulations, il se formera certainement, mais rien ne prouve concrètement que ce sera le cas (veuillez ne pas croire les vidéos de YouTube).

N'oubliez pas non plus que près de 60% du XRP sont détenus par les banques, les fondateurs et l'équipe. Ils peuvent très facilement manipuler le marché, ce qui fait peur.

Je retiens mon influence pour le court-moyen terme et les vendrai «si» il est coté sur Coinbase. Même si cela tombe, cela n'aura pas d'importance, car je les ai achetés à $ 0.2 – 0.3 (Rs 14) par ondulation.

Vous pouvez suivre notre nouvelle page Facebook La nation crypto pour les nouvelles et les mises à jour. Nous allons bientôt commencer à publier des nouvelles mises à jour et tous les autres éléments liés aux crypto-monnaies.

PS - Faites toujours vos propres recherches avant d'investir. Chaque personne peut avoir une opinion et une capacité de prise de risque différentes.

Bon retour sur investissement

Maxwell Smart

Maxwell Smart, ancien propriétaire chez Construction Business

Répondu il y a 41w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 78 et de vues de réponses 9.1k

Investir dans des crypto-monnaies est la chose la plus intelligente que vous puissiez faire dans votre vie… mais vous devez faire des recherches et commencer dès maintenant.

Shoiab Akram

Shoiab Akram, Professionel de l'informatique

Répondu il y a 41w

C'est juste une bulle. Plus ils grandissent, plus il y a de risque que ça saute!

What would be different about the US and the world if Al Gore had won in 2000? Would the United States look any different if Bush had not won the Presidency?

Dan Barrett

Dan Barrett, Public Policy & Metrics Guy

Répondu il y a 142w

Many answers have extrapolated what a President Gore would have done if he won the 2000 general election but we need to explore the initial decision of the Bush v Gore case before the Supreme Court. Note: I’m not a lawyer so objective lawyerly corrections are welcome. As opposed to popular rhetoric, SCOTUS ruled in favor of Bush for logical reasons. In short, SCOTUS a statué that Florida was required to use the same accounting method for all counties, as opposed to what some wished (to only recount some counties using varying methodologies), and that doing otherwise would be a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. There was also the issue of whether or not the case required an answer to a political question (something fundamentally political in question and thus not appropriate for the court to make a legal ruling on). If SCOTUS ruled in favor of Gore, it would have set a new legal precedent regarding state-federal interactions and general election law. I can’t speak to how later cases would be affected by a Gore victory (hopefully experts will answer that in cette question) but it would signify a change in how SCOTUS conducts business (i.e. the political question issue).

Now, onto the details of a Gore Presidency…

Candidate Gore’s Platform: As opposed to the lack of details in many political campaigns in the past few years, the Gore-Lieberman campaign offered many proposals. Thankfully http://4presidents.us has the text of the campaign’s platform site pages (this is gold for analytical folks like me). The points listed below are things he would have changed (as opposed to continuing to support). A Gore-Lieberman Administration would:

Économie:

  • Award new grants for universal broadband Internet coverage and access
  • Ban soft money in political campaigns and create a fund to publicly fund political campaigns
  • Boost spending for research and development
  • Build on Clinton’s Equal Pay Initiative (training for employers to comply with pay requirements)
  • Encourage independent or assisted living of and employment for disabled individuals through new funding
  • Ensure that “third generation” wireless spectrum is available to telecommunications companies
  • Expand eligible businesses under the Family and Medical Leave Act
  • Expand the safety net for farmers with augmented crop supports
  • Grow the number of housing vouchers and homeownership in urban areas
  • Incentivize more individuals to get off welfare and begin working through grants and tax incentives
  • Increase labor union protections
  • Increase the minimum wage by $1 over two years
  • Provide funding for mass transit systems (such as light and high-speed rail)
  • Strengthen child support collections and other fatherhood requirements

Education:

  • Establish universal voluntary preschool and boost Head Start funding
  • Eventually fully fund educations for students with disabilities
  • Increase funding for non-traditional schools (such as charters)
  • Offer grants to educate or reeducate workers and lengthen the period displaced workers receive Trade Adjustment Assistance
  • Provide funds to repair or rebuild schools, wiring classrooms for Internet access
  • Quadruple the number of students at 21st Century Leaning Centers and further support other after-school programs
  • Raise teacher pay
  • Recruit 100,000 new teachers
  • Require student testing 3 times between 3rd grade and graduation, rewarding successful districts and turn around failing ones

Energy and Environment:

  • Create a trust fund and tax credits to help consumers buy energy efficient goods and make buildings more efficient and weatherized
  • Encourage the development of alternative energy sources (such as solar)
  • Establish a cap-and-trade carbon emissions system and incentivize companies to reduce pollution through credits
  • Fund projects to reduce America’s dependence on foreign oil
  • Prevent drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and in sensitive offshore areas
  • Restore the “polluter pays” funding mechanism for Superfund sites

Federal Spending:

  • Create IRA-style savings accounts for retirement, managed by private firms and parallel to current Social Security benefits
  • Ensure employee pension portability and protections from changes by employers
  • Have every agency functionally online, accepting applications, providing services, etc.
  • Increase Social Security benefits for stay-at-home parents and widows/widowers
  • Pay down the national debt (with budget surplus funds)
  • Shore up Social Security (by paying down the national debt with budget surplus funds) and create tax-free savings accounts

Foreign Policy and Defense:

  • Change how the Pentagon operates for efficiency and cost savings
  • Develop a limited national missile defense system
  • Fully fund the military’s TRICARE health care system
  • Require labor and environmental standards in international trade agreements
  • Work to improve health care access, the variety of services, and long-term benefits provided by the Veterans Administration

Health Care:

  • Allow 55 to 65 year olds buy Medicare health insurance
  • Cover up to 50% of prescription drug costs for seniors (up to $5,000 annually)
  • Create an initiative to support families with disabled individuals
  • Double funding to find cures for cancer (spending increases for other diseases, especially HIV/AIDS)
  • Encourage competition in Medicare insurance plans
  • Expand Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) child and family eligibility and the ability to enroll
  • Expand Medicaid coverage for nursing home expenses
  • Give greater negotiating and cost saving authority to traditional Medicare plans
  • Mandate full child mental health coverage for private insurers and CHIP
  • Pass a Patients’ Bill of Rights (greater negotiation with insurance companies)
  • Reach underserved populations by growing the National Health Service Corps and the Projects for Assistance in Transition from Homelessness
  • Separate Medicare payroll taxes from the regular budget with a Medicare “lock box”
  • Streamline and simplify Medicaid and food stamp enrollment
  • Strengthen community, public, and academic health and mental centers

Law Enforcement and Immigration:

  • Expand the number of drug courts and their authority to order drug tests of offenders
  • Hire 50,000 new police officers, 10,000 community prosecutors, 500 ATF agents
  • Impose new gun regulations (including databases, background checks, and waiting periods)
  • Restore benefits for legal immigrants (such as welfare, Medicaid, and Social Security)

Impôts:

In general, Gore aimed to expand or introduce new tax credits for working class families, stay-at-home parents, low-income earners, retirees, soon-to-be retirees, environmental causes, and innovative research. It is unclear how exactly the credits would be paid for other than his mention of the budget stimulus. He did not mention in writing raising tax rates.

  • New Credits: a long-term care tax credit, a small business premium health care tax credit, an individual health insurance tax credit, a school modernization bond tax credit, the College Opportunity Tax Credit (college tuition and training), the New Markets Incentive (tax benefits for capital investments in distressed communities), business tax incentives for energy efficiency and environmental improvement
  • Expanded Credits: the Earned Income Tax Credit, increase the Standard Deduction for marriage penalty relief, simplify estate tax exemptions for small businesses and family farms, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit, Brownfields tax incentives (made permanent)
  • Made Refundable Credits: the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit (fully), the After-School Tax Credit (new and fully), the Research and Experimentation Tax Credit (partial) Note: refundable tax credits give money to households and businesses in excess of their tax liability so it is counted as new spending (not decreases in revenue) in the federal budget.

The Political Environment: In 2001, a new Congress was sworn in along with the new President. Between the 106th and 107th Congresses, the Republicans maintained their majority of the House, while the Senate went from a 55-45 Republican majority to a 50/50 split. I assume that the new Congress would have this make up because the Bush v Gore case came just after the election, thus not influencing the lower elections.

The nation faced some shorter-term issues in those first 6 months. Here they are along with the Bush-Gore differences (if any):

  • Economic Downturn: Where Bush enacted his broad tax cuts, Gore would have pushed for economic stimulus. When Congress would disagree, he would put together a targeted tax package that reflect parts of this campaign platform (larger credits for the eligible, new cuts for small businesses). The plan would generally be supported, especially with budget surplus money burning a hole in the national pocket. Long-term result, Congress would still need to reauthorize these changes, potentially causing debates like that of the 2011 Fiscal Cliff negotiations.
  • Education Reform Package: Though Bush and Gore had some overlap (using testing as a key means to measure student process and to barter with districts), Gore’s proposals were a bit more Obama-ish with the roots of Race to the Top and an ever-shrinking student-to-teacher ratio in classrooms. While there would be no No Child Left Behind as we know it, Gore would spend some of this initial political capital on a similar big move. I see two possibilities: Gore pushes a Democrat version of NCLB that grows teacher ranks and tries to retrain more workers OR he uses that capital on a completely different issue (knowing how Gore is now, I’d vote on a start to a cap-and-trade system, likely state-based, that tries to start to monetize carbon pollution – my money would still be on education reform).
  • China Spy Plane “Crisis”: Remember this one? A U.S. spy plane en collision with a Chinese plane, forcing the U.S. plane to land in China. In President Bush world, we all tensely sat as the servicemembers were returned in not so a dissimilar fashion as the recent Iranian naval situation (i.e. “oh God, what are we gonna d—oh, they’re back already?”). I don’t see a different result with Gore as president. He would work the channels to get our boys back but not make any rash statements of going to war or whatnot.
  • Budget Surplus: There would be a battle for the balance of the surplus. Republicans would want to cut taxes or at least give some back to folks whereas Gore (and Bill Clinton) wanted to pay down the debt and shore up Social Security. With tax cuts in a way being neutralized with Gore’s quasi-stimulus package, he would have some leverage to strengthen Social Security (I would say mostly because Republicans could just as easily use it as a campaign bright point as Gore come reelection).

Then 9/11…

A President Gore would seek a similar path as Bush in at least the first few months after the attacks. He would send whatever the military told him to on a conquest cruise through Afghanistan, he would authorize intelligence and law enforcement agencies to step up terrorist investigations, and he would pledge any and all domestic resources to rebuilding NYC and the pentagon. I also think that the US PATRIOT Act would pass, the anthrax mail attacks would still occur, and the U.S. would yet again be seen as a policeman (but this time a policeman with a cause). What I can’t say is if Gore would have employed torture. He would at least not boast about possibly doing it like Bush did, nor would he classify terrorists as enemy combatants and grant them rights under the Geneva Convention. To top all of this off, he would likely declare a war on terror, through I think it would be a bit keyed back and without the black-or-white declarations of Bush’s address to Congress in 2001.

Now for a surprise. I don’t think that a President Gore would have created the Department of Homeland Security. He would have thrown tons of money at the FBI, CIA, NSA, and ATF to better coordinate their efforts but he would have had to play politics, even just after 9/11. Instead of appearing like a big government Democrat, he would hold back on creating drastically more bureaucracy in favor of building up existing agencies. He might have changed this policy after the 9/11 Commission report came out in 2004 or if other terrorist attacks occurred but initially I think he thinks of what resources were available to him for the previous eight years and acts on those capabilities instead of trying to make new ones. To pile on, I also think that he does not federalize airport security screeners, instead imposing a mandate on states to figure it out.

In this respect, we’d still have whistleblowers like Edward Snowden because mass data collections would still occur (though I think that Gore would have changed some policies when he himself found out about them – something likely not happening during his administration). However, on the bright side, having no DHS would mean the Federal Emergency Management Agency would have remained independent and wouldn’t have experienced the la fuite des cerveaux it continues to suffer being weighed down by DHS bureaucracy and de-prioritization. This means that relief for Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, and Gustov would look more like Hurricane Andrew recovery operations. The ripple effects here would be felt by many.

Later in his term (I’m assuming he would get reelected after facing a possible Jeb Bush or Newt Gingrich challenge in 2004), Gore would push for and face a few more challenges:

  • Drug Plans: Bush created the Medicare Part D program that helps the elderly get prescription drugs. This was also something Gore spoke about during his campaign so I would expect something similar to today’s Part D to be in a Gore-run world.
  • Africa and AIDS: President Bush increased funding for AIDS relief in Africa more than any previous President. Though Gore called for something similar, I think it was a few steps behind Bush’s actions. Advantage Bush.
  • Alito and Roberts No More: With the retirement of O’Connor and death of Rehnquist, Gore would have nominated left-of-center judges. This would likely have bearing on cases concerning campaign finance, handguns, and an infinite number of cases going forward. The court wouldn’t necessarily be a shoe in for left cases as the court tends to shift voting blocks for each case.
  • China in the WTO: The People’s Republic would still gain access to freer trade with western nations but Gore called for greater consideration for labor and environmental practices in foreign trade negotiations so it’s interesting to see what he would do, especially as China gained membership in late 2001 as the U.S. was recovering from recession.
  • Russo-Georgian War: In the twilight of his presidency, Russia would likely still have invaded parts of Georgia, claiming the tiny nation acted against ethnic Russian people and so on (remind you of Ukraine today?). Gore’s response would likely have been similar to Bush’s. Condemn Russia’s actions, supply humanitarian relief, but don’t offer any military assistance or the chance of U.S. servicemembers getting killed in the area.
  • Great Recession: The last thing in the Gore presidency would have likely been a big economic shock like we what we felt in 2007. It might have been different (Gore wanted more homeownership, which could have worsened things, but he might have had a better federal balance sheet without the invasion of Iraq) but government financial and housing policies would have met with changing economic conditions and market distortions to equal a large amount of job loss and market volatility. Gore would have likely bailed out the large banks for fear of greater damage and he might have accompanied them with a stimulus not unlike President Obama’s, thus doubling down on more market intervention.

In summary, I think that a President Gore would have conducted business differently than President Bush but both would marginally match each other’s actions in instances that were going to happen regardless who was in the White House or in control of Congress. Perhaps this is a good sign of how Americans are alike (Democrats, Independents, and Republicans) but times were also very different at the start of the new millennium. The budget stimulus was thought to make things easier for everyone and, like winning the lottery, it might have been better if it never existed, making elected officials fundamentally address challenges without the need to throw too much money at problems.

I wholly admit I missed a million things that went on during the Bush years.

Mike Vago

Mike Vago

Répondu il y a 291w

There wouldn't have been a 9/11, for starters. Clinton's national security team was intensely focused on bin Laden and Al Qaeda after the attack on the U.S. Cole and several other attacks during Clinton's presidency. Sandy Berger sat down Condi Rice and warned her that Al Qaeda was going to be her top priority, but the Bush regime ignored that, any anything that didn't have to do with missile defense or oil. Plus, there was no way President Gore was going to ignore a briefing saying "bin Laden Determined To Attack America."

Without 9/11, there's no Afghan War, and without Cheney's schemes for world domination there's no Iraq War. That's a huge difference.

And without those wars, and without Bush's massive tax giveaway to the super-rich, the deficit would be in much better shape. The economy was still going to slow down after the dot-com bubble burst, but I think we would have seen better than the "jobless recovery" we got.

Who knows whether Gore would have been prescient enough to stop the subprime mortgage debacle - Clinton was pretty enthusiastic about bank deregulation, so odds are there still would have been no one minding the store. I doubt Gore would have given a trillion dollars to the banks with no strings attached (TARP) the way Bush did, though.

John Precht

John Precht, "Eternal vigilance is the price of Liberty".

Mise à jour il y a 65w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 379 et de vues de réponses 567.6k

Al Gore lost the election even though he had five hundred thousand more votes then George W. Bush. What would be different about the world if Al Gore had been elected President? We will never know but here are my thoughts -

What would be different about the US and the world if Al Gore had won in 2000? Would the United States look any different if Bush had not won the Presidency?

9/11 - as Vice President, Al Gore was very involved in the Clinton Administration. The first attack on the World Trade Center occurred during Bill Clinton's presidency.( The conspirators were captured and tried, and are currently in prison.) President Clinton spent a lot of time trying to track down Osama bin Laden. Of course, the Republicans in Congress insisted that it was just an attempt on his part to distract the nation from the much more serious business facing America at that time…. whether or not he had lied under oath about sex with Monica Lewinsky! THIS IS TRUE!! Look it up!! When George W. Bush was warned in August, 2001- Bin Laden to attack U. S., he replied, “I guess you covered your ass”… I think that Al Gore would have taken this warning much more seriously, and would have thought that the World Trade Center, which had already been a target when he was Vice President, might potentially be hit again. Definitely if he was President, the nation would have been under alert, and there is the possibility that 9/11 might have been prevented….Let's say though, that he wasn't able to prevent 9/11. How would he have reacted? I believe his priority would be to take out Osama Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda. But what I think he would have done differently, is that he would have followed the Powell Doctrine in invading Afghanistan… remember the Powell Doctrine? You only go to war as a last resort, you have a Plan as to what it is you exactly want to accomplish before you invade, and a time schedule for accomplishing what you want to do, and an Exit Plan for leaving! THIS IS BRILLIANT!! This was done in the first Gulf War under President George H.W. Bush… Consider this, President George W. Bush had Colin Powell in his administration… why didn't they follow the Powell Doctrine when they invaded Iraq and Afghanistan? WHY?!…Why did the Press never question him about why they weren't following it?…(Ah! But that's forgetting the conservatives plan for a never ending War to preserve U.S. World domination!…) Anyway, I think Gore would have sent US forces into Afghanistan for a quick take out Of Al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden, and then got the hell out. Remember, we were attacked by an ORGANIZATION, not a COUNTRY. No real excuse for staying there. Till this day, I have not heard of any Taliban terrorist attacks in the United States. Yes, they are a brutal regime and have no respect for human rights, but it was our interference in Afghanistan that led to their rise in the first place. With our lack of success, why do we always consider it our business to try to set up what WE think is the best government in every country in the world… and kill people who live there in doing it. Al Gore was in Vietnam during the Vietnam War, and I am sure he would have been reluctant to get his administration involved in any kind of quagmire in Afghanistan.

What would be different about the US and the world if Al Gore had won in 2000? Would the United States look any different if Bush had not won the Presidency?

Under a President Al Gore, I don't believe Iraq would have happened. Invading Iraq was the big thing on the conservative agenda….

What would be different about the US and the world if Al Gore had won in 2000? Would the United States look any different if Bush had not won the Presidency?

Just imagine never having gotten involved in the Never Ending War on Terror! We would have taken care of Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda, case closed, the end!! No Iraq War, no Afghanistan war!! No collapse of the Middle East, no Refugee crisis, no Isis!! No million lives lost, no trillions of dollars thrown away!! Just think how much better the world would be!!!

What would be different about the US and the world if Al Gore had won in 2000? Would the United States look any different if Bush had not won the Presidency?

Climate Change - after losing the election to George W. Bush, Al Gore, if you remember, made the movie, “An Inconvenient Truth.” Al Gore was the first politician to really focus National attention on climate change. It is very possible that after 9/11, and not coming from an oil family, as George W. did, that Gore might have perceived that it was in the United States best strategic interests to get away from Middle Eastern oil, and to get involved big time in renewable energy… just imagine where we would be today, if after 9/11, President Al Gore, had put forward an initiative for the United States to become energy independent, and become the world leader in developing renewable energy!!!..Yes, I know this is all a best case, with hindsight scenario… but I don't think anything I have put down is something you could say, Al Gore would have never done it that way…. Just imagine! If we had started seriously leading the world in addressing Climate Change 16 years ago, we might have it under control by now…

What would be different about the US and the world if Al Gore had won in 2000? Would the United States look any different if Bush had not won the Presidency?

Bladeless wind turbines

Chrys Jordan

Chrys Jordan, taught himself history because school stank

Répondu il y a 169w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 10.1k et de vues de réponses 16.5m

Réponse d'origine: How would the world be different today if SCOTUS had ruled in 2000 that the recounts in Florida had to be included, thus resulting in Gore winning the election?

I have wondered about that.

As things actually happened, many people walked away from that election convinced that George W. Bush stole the election with the help of his brother Jeb, the governor of Florida.

If Al Gore had been declared the winner, people might well think the same thing of the Democrats: that they stole the election.

If Al Gore had been president, 9/11 (terrorist attack) would have occurred anyway. The reasons why no one knew the attack was coming before it happened are institutional failings. In this respect, Gore would probably have been unprepared as Bush was, for the same reasons.
Gore would have declared war on al-Qaʕida. The war in Afghanistan is likely to have happened much the same way, assuming the same generals had been in power.

But afterwards, Gore would probably not have gone to war against Iraq. Unless Gore made a radical break from Clinton's foreign policy, he would not have done so unless there was massive support for Desert Storm II.
As it happened, there was no massive support for Desert Storm II ... except that Bush took advantage of 9/11 to create it.

The consequence of this would be huge. Among others:
Saddam Hussein would still be in power, for better and for worse.
America's relations with Europe and the rest of the world would be better.
ISIS would not exist.

Bill Clinton had his faults with foreign policy; but domestically, he did balance the budget. It is unlikely that President Gore would have put America in debt. If he did so, he would not have done so to the degree that George W. Bush did.

I also predict that the Republican Party might not have gone so far to the right as it has. If Gore had been a successful president, then the Republicans would have had to come closer to the center in order to stay afloat.
The Tea Party might well have grown in consequence, as far-right conservatives might well have left the Republican Party to join them.
As an unintended side effect, the Tea Party might now be a serious contender in national elections ... something no third party has ever achieved.

I think, overall, that Gore's presidency would likely to have been better than Bush's.

TL;DR: Gore would likely have done the same thing after 9/11, but probably would not have gone to war in Iraq, with disastrous consequences. Neither would Gore have put America back in debt.

This ends today's thought experiment.
Merci pour le A2A, Kenneth I Altman.

Jai Khemani

Jai Khemani

Répondu il y a 68w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 127 et de vues de réponses 68.6k

Assuming Gore governs like clinton. Thats very likely as they were both Third way/New Democrats. While I am a Libertarian/Austrian economist I really wish Clintonomics continued. Clinton cut government more than any other President including Reagan- Art Laffer voted for Clinton twice!

  1. No Bush tax cuts- they didn’t stimulate growth because all they did was cut rates by a few % points. The complexity of the tax code still stayed the same. Reduces deficit by $1.4 trillion as tax cuts didn’t stimulate growth (2001–2009). Had Bush implemented a flat rate of tax or the FairTax that is serious tax reform, hence could grow the economy.
  2. No Iraq or Afghanistan or Guantanamo- saves $1 trillion from 2001–2009
  3. No Medicare Part D or No Child Left Behind- Saves $800 billion over 10 years
  4. No Department of Homeland Security- budget spent on internal security would be less than half of what it is today
  5. Budget surpluses would likely continue as both Gore and Clinton were both Third Way Democrats. Also Gore would have to work with Republican Congress, so none of these extra social/welfare programmes., but Gore would veto Republican attempts to cut taxes.
  6. Based on the above figures and the fact that the economy continued to grow even during the 2000s, I reckon the national debt would have fallen from $5.3 trillion in 2000 to $4 trillion in 2008. By 2008, the total GDP of the U.S was $14.7 trillion, that puts debt to GDP ratio falling to 27.2%, which is down from 65% in 1993. So the Clinton/Gore era was a time of fiscal restraint.
  7. No Patriot Act, humble foreign policy and cuts in Defense spending. Plus t

How to make extra money with air bnb

Owen Franks

Owen Franks, Airbnb Host - thecurioushost.com

Répondu il y a 2w

I’m experimenting with these ideas to make extra money with my Airbnb:

  1. mini-bar - just leave out some nice to have stuff and an honesty box (or a PayPal Payme link if you want to be fancy). Buy in bulk, keep it in the store cupboard, and get your cleaner to replenish it.
  2. Location d'équipement - use a coded padlock on a set of bikes or kayaks etc and share it with guests once they pay the fee (I’d definitely go with the PayPal PayMe link here)
  3. Voiture de location - Turo is basically Airbnb for people’s cars. Why not combine the two? If you rent your place out while you are on vacation, take an Uber to the airport and leave your car for your guests. They pay you directly through the app.
  4. Service de conciergerie - make connections with local restaurants, bars and even massage therapists and take a commission when your guests sign up. I plan to use a virtual assistant to book these for guests.
  5. Artwork sales - if you are an artist or photographer, why not make your own gallery in your home? Or promote the work of other artists for a commission. The low tech way to set this up is to just let guests take any pieces that they like displayed in your house, and pay you as above. The high tech (but actually quite easy) option is to set up a drop shipping website and write a link on a card next to the artwork. Your guests can buy a copy of the piece through that link, and a fresh print is produced automatically by the printing company and posted to your guests. Pretty neat I think.

How to make extra money with air bnb

You can read about my plans to implement these on my blog:

5 Brilliant Ways To Up-sell On AirBNB - The Curious Host

Merci pour la lecture.

PS if you try any of these suggestions, please let me know in the comments below. I’d love to hear how you get on!

Sarah Harrison

Sarah Harrison, Hôte chez Airbnb (2018-present)

Répondu il y a 2w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 100 et de vues de réponses 155.3k

I agree with Satish about adding optional amenities for a fee to earn additional cash. I don't offer condoms… (I live in the house I list and that just seems awkward �� But I do offer toothbrushes, toothpaste, razors and shaving cream for a small fee.

My only struggle with that is it takes time to do things like fetch food or drop off/pick up dry cleaning. The return on that time is less than I could make if I spent it focused on real estate lead generation or picking up a nursing shift at $20/hr.

Measure the value of your time and make sure you are using your working hours in the best way possible for the most money possible. For me, the best guests are the ones that require the least amount of effort.

I have considered putting a coin operated pool table in the living room or small vending machine on site. I could even convert my washer/dryer to coin operated. I would probably consider that more seriously if I were renting out the whole house and not just one room. It takes a long time for the upfront cost of those things to pay themselves off and become profitable.

Hope this helps. Feel free to comment if you have additional thoughts/questions.

Satish Gaire

Satish Gaire, Vendor Of 712 SaaS Platform With 22M In Sales.

Répondu il y a 2w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 201 et de vues de réponses 585.8k

How to make extra money with air bnb

I am assuming, you want to know how you can make EXTRA bucks from Air BNB beside the normal payment that company pays you for renting out your property.

Couple Ideas:

  1. Offer Dry cleaning service, and mark up the price by 3$
  2. Offer to bring food from their fav restaurant for $20
  3. Offer to become a guide in the city for $100 per day
  4. Put condoms in bathroom & say, $10 for 3 condom pack

Suivez-moi:

YouTube 1000 Ways To Make Money - YouTube ( YouTube series i started to teach people how to make money )

FaceBook https://www.facebook.com/gairesa...

LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/in/sati...

Pouvez-vous suggérer un lieu de travail en ligne pour les micro-jobs, comme Freelancer, qui permet un paiement via Skrill?

Amin Jan

Amin Jan

Répondu il y a 25w

Pourquoi n'essayez-vous pas le compte Payoneer. Si vous êtes un débutant et que vous recherchez une bonne méthode pour recevoir votre argent durement gagné, alors Payoneer Est la meilleure option. Payoneer vous permettra non seulement de recevoir votre argent, mais vous donnera également un bonus de 25 en tant que nouveau client.

Payoneer est le meilleur car à mon avis en utilisant Payoneer vous pouvez recevoir votre argent en quelques heures. Bien que vous puissiez utiliser leurs systèmes de livraison express qui indiquent que votre argent sera disponible dans les heures 2, j'ai toujours vu qu'ils nous envoyaient de l'argent dans les minutes 10. C'est la raison pour laquelle je recommande fortement Payoneerà tout le monde.

Payoneer le service est juste comme fast food, juste commander et manger. Parfois, ils envoient également de l'argent sur votre compte bancaire très rapidement, puis les temps prévus. Payoneer le service est beaucoup mieux que PayPal si vous parlez de vitesse.

Maintenant, vous pouvez obtenir votre salaire facilement grâce à Payoneer compte bancaire et PayoneerCarte de débit gratuite. C'est le moyen le plus simple de recevoir de l'argent du monde entier.

Payoneer est proposée comme solution de paiement, ce qui signifie que vous pouvez connecter vos comptes pour recevoir des paiements directement sur votre compte. Payoneer compte sans utiliser les détails du service de paiement des États-Unis.

Peu importe de quelle partie du monde tu es, Payoneer ouvrira aux États-Unis un compte bancaire virtuel que vous pourrez utiliser à différentes fins. Par exemple, vous pouvez recevoir votre argent de PayPal, Amazon, etc.

Si vous êtes des États-Unis ou du Royaume-Uni, alors Payoneer peut également être intégré avec de nombreuses grandes entreprises telles que Google AdSense et PayPal (Plus d'informations à ce sujet plus tard).

Nous Payoneer est utilisé dans de nombreux grands sites pour payer leurs affiliés. Donc, il est devenu très important d’utiliser Payoneer aujourd'hui.

Payoneer C'est également très bon pour économiser votre argent des frais et taxes, ses frais sont très inférieurs à ceux des autres entreprises. Et les taux de conversion des devises sont également très bons, vous n'avez donc pas à vous soucier de ces choses.

Si vous ne vous êtes pas encore inscrit à Payoneer, allez-y inscription pour Payoneer et profitez de son service et de ses avantages exceptionnels.

Barney Douglas

Barney Douglas, Photographe commercial, écrivain et traducteur (1985-present)

Répondu il y a 66w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 824 et de vues de réponses 1.3m

Aucun à ma connaissance. Ils utilisent tous un système d'entiercement pour les transferts entre propriétaires de projets et indépendants, mais certains peuvent avoir Skrill pour les paiements aux indépendants après l'achèvement des projets.

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Yash Gupta

Yash Gupta, Bachelor of Technology Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra (2019)

Répondu il y a 68w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 328 et de vues de réponses 238.8k

Just some industries going off and households in darkness. These days many people have got power backups at their homes in form of UPS inverters. I don’t expect a large scale loss if the breakout is for a small time. However, a cut for a long duration can turn out to be reason for mass chaos.

Lance Chambers

Lance Chambers, Read a lot...

Répondu il y a 68w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 1.4k et de vues de réponses 735.4k

Examples we could think of are these (sorry they are from the USA):

NORTHEAST UNITED STATES AND NORTHERN CANADA // NOVEMBER 9, 1965

A faulty relay at Sir Adam Beck Station on the Ontario side of Niagara Falls led to what was then the biggest power failure in U.S. history. At 5:16 p.m., the tripping of a 230-kilovolt transmission line began a domino effect resulting in a surge of power that overwhelmed transmission lines and put New York City in the dark at the height of a Tuesday rush hour. 800,000 people were reported trapped in the subway.

In addition to New York, power overloads and automatic system shutdowns affected 30 million people in New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire,Vermont, Quebec, and Ontario. 10,000 National Guardsmen and 5,000 off-duty police officers were called into service to prevent looting, although it turned out to be relatively calm and peaceful. Power was restored for most people within 13 hours.

NORTHEAST UNITED STATES AND CANADA // AUGUST 14-15, 2003

It took months before the real cause of the Northeast Blackout of 2003 was finally determined. Initially, Canadian Defense Minister John McCallum blamed an outage at a nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania, which the state's Emergency Management Agency denied. What actually happened was a high-voltage power line in Northern Ohio brushed against overgrown trees, causing it to shut down. When the alarm system that would typically alert FirstEnergy Corporation failed, the incident was ignored. In the next 90 minutes, system operators tried to figure out what happened while three other lines switched off as a consequence of the first line's failure.

This started a domino effect, and by 4:05 p.m. Southeast Canada and eight Northeastern U.S. states were without power. 50 million people were inconvenienced for up to two days in what turned out to be the biggest blackout in North American history. 11 people died and there was a reported $6 billion in damages. The incident prompted the creation of a joint task force between the U.S. and Canada to minimize future blackouts.

(Source: The 12 Biggest Blackouts In History)

The most interesting thing was that almost exactly 9 months later births in the USA skyrocketed and then returned to normal. What are people going to do if their TV and/or radio doesn’t work? The same would probably happen again.

Power would be restored relatively quickly I imagine although the number of deaths would probably increase as certain systems failing would have disastrous consequences for some people.

Sam Adams

Sam Adams, Software Engg Consultant (1996-present)

Répondu il y a 68w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 1.8k et de vues de réponses 2.3m

It is actually a very real threat and possibility in the event of a CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) that has the opposite charge as the magnetosphere.

It will pretty much fry every transmission transformer and all electronics and it will take decades to replace all the transformers on a worldwide scale. You have a very short time window to detect and take them offline.

Most CMEs from the Sun are deflected by the magnetosphere which is evidenced in the poles as Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis. Once in a while you get a oppositely charged CME that will be attracted instead of repelled by the magnetosphere and it can be devastating for all the electrical & electronics stuff. And all satellites are toast as well.

Some Age will be only a stone throw away.

James West

James West, former Professional World F*cker-upper

Répondu il y a 68w

(*WARNING: LONG ANSWER*)

Part 1: Localised Destruction

Ooooooh mama here we go!

Now this question can be interpreted in a multitude of different ways (In my opinion), being that the world goes through either a) an event which causes a significant proportion of the global population to lose access to a functioning power grid, which could be limited to a large country or region or b.) the overwhelming majority of the global population loses access to a functioning power grid, a truly worldwide catastrophe.

For both of these scenarios, I’m going to try to delve as deep as I dare and examine how this will not only affect the nation, but you, the average Joe, sitting there reading this on your device to distract you from the fact you’ve actually got a boatload of work waiting for you somewhere (it’s ok, no need to study for that final, Quora is the réal priority).

In this answer, I’m gonna solely focus on scenario A and save B for later, depending if people can tolerate an answer as long as this!

And before we start, here’s the criteria for what stipulates a major blackout as per Dr. Wikipedia;

"Le panne de courant must conform to tout des critères suivants:

  1. The outage must not be planned by the service provider.
  2. The outage must affect at least 1,000 people and last at least one hour.
  3. There must be at least 1,000,000 person-hours of disruption”

Let’s start with scenario A, and bring in everyone’s favourite apocalypse guinea pig;

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

The Good ol’ US of A

Population: 326,433,373 people (June 2017)

Quartier: 9.834 million km²

PIB: 17.95 trillion USD ‎(2015)

Per capita: 55,836.79 USD ‎(2015)

I think we can all agree a prolonged, sustained nationwide blackout in the States would of course be considered a global event, since we effectively have paralysed the majority of the nation which so happens to be the undisputed military and economic superpower of the 21st Century (sorry China).

Of course city, state even region-wide major power outages are all too common in the United States, with Hurricane Sandy in 2012 knocking out pylons and transformers leaving over 8 million people without energy across 9 states, them being New Jersey (2.7 million), New York (2.2 million), Pennsylvania (1.2 million), Connecticut (620,000), Massachusetts (400,000), Maryland (290,000), West Virginia (268,000), Ohio (250,000), and New Hampshire (210,000). More recently, thanks to severe thunderstorms, we had a taste of that this year. On March 1st, 2017 a thunderstorm with conditions similar to that of a typhoon left over 10 millions de personnes without power all across the Eastern Seaboard. That’s 3.1% of the population of the most powerful nation on Earth left without power, all because of a single storm.

These massive black outs are more common than you’d think, a quick look on the list on Wikipedia will show that. North America has had a major black out, which affects at least 1 million people at a averaging rate of 1 every other year from 1981 to 1999.

Il ya eu des four multi-million person black outs on the continental United States in the past five years alone (5 if you want to count Puerto Rico, although it’s not mainland or really a state, yet).

The United States has approximately 55,000 power plants throughout but as reported by the Daily Mail, America could plunge into a blackout if NINE power plants are attacked, since the US grid system is interdependent, so if one component fails, the load is placed on the next component, putting it under strain which thereby makes it more likely for the component to fail.

But if multiple components fail, then you can get a rolling failure effect, a cascade of power stations going down, and with each station you lose, the more load you put on the ones that are still holding out.

This is why a real life scenario with a coast-to-coast blackout is now a real possibility. This become further compounded considering attacks on power stations are frighteningly common.

US Power Grid Attacked Every 4 Days; Nationwide Blackout

New Report: US Power Grid Attacked Every 4 Days; Nationwide Blackout More Likely Than We Thought

United States Power Grid Attacked Every Four Days — Nationwide Blackout Highly Expected To Happen

These statistics are based on Federal Energy records and were analysed by reporters at USA aujourd'hui.

These assaults range from cybernetic attacks on controlling computational systems to good ol’ fashioned physical smash n’ bash of transformers and other critical electrical infrastructure. Between 2011 and 2014, there were 348 physical attacks and 14 cyber attacks on the grid that caused outrages or disturbances, according to electric utility data reported to the US Southern Department of Energy.

You’d think Uncle Sam® would respond to these pressing vulnerabilities wouldn’t you?

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

To quote the Inquistr :

“…focused more so on the part of the report in which power grid attacks may go unnoticed for several hours. This gives saboteurs plenty of time to cover their tracks and escape. An example of this is when police investigated an attack happening back in April of 2013 on a California substation until several hours after shots were fired. To this day, those attackers have never been found or identified.”

With the cyber-warfare capabilities of other nations not so friendly with the US (*cough North Korea cough*) being sufficient to cause widespread havoc and even the threat of domestic cyber-terrorism, it’s a surprise the US hasn’t been sent back to the Stone Age yet.

Want a bit more? To quote OfftheGridNews;

“Members of the EMP Commission that reported to Congress found that if the grid is down for one year, 70-90 percent of the US — between 200 million and 285 million Americans — would be at severe risk due to starvation, a lack of medical supplies, and civil unrest. One big reason an attack would do so much damage is because there are no backup parts to much of the system; they’re custom made, and it can take weeks or months to replace them.”

Jon Wellinghoff, the former chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission said “Those critical nodes can (electrical power infrastructure), in fact, be attacked in one way or another… You have a very vulnerable system that will continue to be vulnerable until we figure out a way to break it out into more distributed systems.”

He described the grid as “too susceptible to a cascading outage”, which is a nice way of saying America’s power grid security systems, they way they are now, couldn’t guard a boiled egg.

You could dismiss this all as hooey and scaremongering. Ok sure, I respect that. But not even 11 hours ago (as of writing this answer), thousands of companies and organisations across the United States and Europe were crippled by the massive “Petya” cyber attack, a ransomware strain which affected massive companies like Danish shipping giant A.P. Moller-Maersk, the world's largest overseas cargo carrier, and Russian oil titan Rosneft. These were among a few of the high-profile corporate victims in at least six countries.

It also affected Merck, one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, and British media company WPP tweeted they had been hit by Petya. Even the behemoth law firm, DLA, was a target of this attack.

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

That sure is a nice way to start the day

Want a bit more? In May 2017, the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) was rocked by a massive cyber-assault. The ransomware “WannaCry” locked down hospital computers, patient records, pharmaceutical information and caused massive disruption everywhere from GP clinics to full-blown central hospitals. This virus crippled the health service, arguably the most important and under-strain service in the nation, of the Royaume-Uni, a leading world power in its own right.

Wanna guess who launched it? NHS cyber-attack was 'launched from North Korea' - BBC News

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

>TFW you hack the other kids Xbox…and cripple his nations f*cking health service

Want even more, more? This one is genuinely f*cking crazy.

Terror attack plunges 140 million into darkness

Massive power failure plunges 80% of Pakistan into darkness

Pakistan works on power blackout after 'rebel attack' - BBC News

You know what put 140 million people, (80% of Pakistan’s population) in darkness, what one event knocked out energy to nearly 2% of the global population in 2015?

The bombing of just two goddamn pylons

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Yeah, these pricks

Rebels in Naseerabad in Pakistan bombed two pylon towers, which caused a massive backward surge in electricity and forced two nuclear power plants to go offline. This plunged the country into darkness, including the capital, Islamabad and the 25 million strong city of Karachi, not to mention Lahore airport being down, which serviced 4.7 million people in 2016, making it Pakistan’s second busiest airport.

Power had to be drawn from other stations, which put enormous strain on the aged and underdeveloped power grid of Pakistan.

The following is according to a ministry spokesperson, Zafaryab Khan following the attack;

“The blowing up of two power pylons in Naseerabad last night created a backward surge which affected the system. It was an act of sabotage."

Think that’s a big outage? Oh you sweet summer child

Allow me introduce to you the 2012 India blackouts, a series of rollings outages over two days that ultimately affected 620 million people or 9% of the world’s population in 2012. It affected 22 states and resulted in 32 gigawatts of power capacity going offline, enough to power roughly Ampoules 3,200,000,000 or roughly 26.7 time travelling DeLorean’s.

The event was actually two blackouts, with the first on July 30 affecting 300 million people (the biggest in history at that point) and the second affecting another 320 million people the day after, on July 31st.

This is a classic example of how several components failing and straining the rest, can ultimately break the whole system.

“But James!” you say “You’re not answering the question! I don’t need more examples, just tell me how would the US react to a massive, nationwide cascading black out?”

Alright then. You know how we do it here, gentlemen. Let’s go for the worst case scenario; a prolonged national power failure, with critical components destroyed by attack and a repair time of roughly 18 months

Well friend, in this case, the American public would do the one thing that God put them on this green earth to do;

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

FLIP THE F*CK OUT

In the event of a massive prolonged outage, especially one caused by deliberate nationwide sabotage (be it cyber or physical), it wouldn’t take long before society would degrade into chaos as people panicked and took to the streets to either demand the government take action (which they undoubtably would be racing to do), get as many supplies as they could by any means necessary (hello, mass looting!) or just to take advantage of the fact that the systems which keep society in order are now gone or at least heavily impaired as they try and organise a strategy to re-affirm order without being able to rely on anything that requires the electrical grid to operate, so bye bye cell towers, internet, Quora, online banking, stock markets, landlines, lights, and anything not backed up by electrical generators.

Sure most hospitals, airports and critical government buildings have got their own power sources separate from the grid, but what happens when the diesel powering their generators runs out? How are you going to get more fuel to these places?

You expect trucks and tankers full of the stuff to be able to move from refinery to city? And how are you meant to refine the crude oil you pull outta the ground? You got fractional distillers that work on magic? And if you did, could they feed the demand of the millions of cars running, plus the millions more generators you need to run so people don’t freeze? You think other countries have the capacity to send enough oil overseas, to ports that don’t have power to run or place their ships in a country in the midst of total pandemonium? Well, with the streets full of rioters and looters, good luck with that.

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Get ready to see plenty of these…

And just how are you going to co-ordinate this massive re-fueling effort? Most communications infrastructure will be down and even if you could co-ordinate, there isn’t enough oil and generators in the world to compensate for the destruction of the majority of America’s nuclear, coal and hydroelectric plants.

Keep in mind, America’s military infrastructure would be largely intact, as they’ve been strengthening and hardening their bases and silos from just about any God and all his angels can throw at them and believe me, they’re gonna be out for vengeance on whoever launched this attack.

If it was domestic, expect the government to double down on everyone and play dirty as they launch the biggest manhunt the world has ever seen. And considering they can’t rely on traffic cams, ATM’s or internet tracking to find the culprits, they are going to go after anyone with the slightest whiff of being involved in this attack. Martial law, crackdowns on civil liberties, federalising and mobilising the National Guard, the whole nine yards.

They’ll also be tasked with maintaining the order in the Union, contending with looters, rioters, protestors, secessionists, terrorists and just about every other nut job in the country with a gun( s̶o̶ ̶p̶r̶e̶t̶t̶y̶ ̶m̶u̶c̶h̶ ̶e̶v̶e̶r̶y̶o̶n̶e̶ ̶i̶n̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶ ̶U̶n̶i̶t̶e̶d̶ ̶S̶t̶a̶t̶e̶s̶).

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Coming to a city near you! And also through your front door at 3 AM…

If the attack was from a foreign power well then first, may they rest in peace and second, expect the Stars n’ Stripes to go into a total war mentality, akin to that of the UK and Russia during the Second World War, with the already scarce and dwindling resources on the homefront being rationed and giving priority to said scarce resources to America’s war machine, because making sure the Navy isn’t dry docked is more important than making sure you’re sorry ass has a warm bed to sleep and light to read. Of course, the nuclear option is always open since America’s ICBM and strategic missile forces sure as hell don’t rely on the electricity coming out of the plug. But that all of course depends on what the mood is of the Cheeto in Chief and how much of an atomic erection he’s got.

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

“When I said nuke the Chinese, I meant put the take-out in the microwave!” - El Presidenté 2K17

And now aside from that, onto the bad stuff

What happens in the North, when the winter blizzards set in, bringing mountains of snow. What happens when a hurricane batters the East coast? What about tornado season in the Mid West or when an earthquake hits California while the black out is in effect? A heat wave? Enough folks already die from those now, in a world full of air conditioning. Imagine a whole summer with no AC! (Keep in mind, a coast to coast black out could take up to mois 18 to recover from.)

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Think it’ll be fun trying to last a few weeks, months even years with no heat in a blizzard?

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

I’d like to see you last the South with no air conditioning

How are you meant to warn people of impeding natural disasters, with no TV, phones or internet? How can you supply them, keep them warm and fed? You expect these people to just hide out in the suburbs and cities while government facilities still have lights flickering and radiators humming?

If the only place in your city with electricity was restricted because of limited resources, and you and your family have been starving since all the food in the fridge spoiled in the first few days and all the dry food in the city has already been raided, do you think your going to form an orderly queue and wait your turn?

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

And you thought Boxing Day was wild….

And let’s say you were smart, or just lucky, and happen to have a source of food/water and reliable, off the grid energy (ie solar), you think your fellow, less prepared compatriots are just gonna roll over and die? When 10 masked, armed guys are banging on your door because you just so happen to have a bathtub full of drinking water or a working solar panel array, who are you gonna call (and with what)?! The police? Sorry, they’re more pre-occupied trying to quell the riots or direct evacuees or perhaps looking after their own families.

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Better bust one of these out.

What happens when the already swamped hospitals are flooded with victims of the violence that spread on the streets? What about the thousands of people of the roads? Even with well lit highways and co-ordinated emergency response systems, thousands still die on our roads every year. How do you imagine how the situation will be on roads with no lighting, no snow plowing, no maintenance?

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Come on! You can buff that out!

Bridge goes down from flooding or a quake? How are you meant to get spare parts or manufacture new ones when the factories are all down since there’s no power? How are you going to feed the populous of millions of starving people when the industrial farming methods we’ve spent the past 50 years perfecting go to sh*t?

The chicken and cattle in those temperature regulated factories, what do you think happens to them when the temperature outside hits zero or when the waste pumps in the factory can’t divert the rivers of waste they produce?

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Yup, they’re all dead and now so are you… cuz you starved

Hell, screw the chickens, what happens when the water pressure in the pipes and pumps dies? No latrines, no sanitation. Say goodbye to flushing toilets and clean tap water. No desalination plants either or pumps to bring up water from aquifers. Water treatment plants also go down, so get ready for open, flooded sewers overflowing with human waste and drinking out of polluted, disease-ridden river water.

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Boire!

Speaking of disease, what happens to those with chronic illness? Those who need to keep their medications refrigerated (ie insulin)? What happens when they can’t buy (or steal) anymore since the supplies are either exhausted or simply spoiled from lack of proper storage? It’s not like they can order some online! This coupled with the lack of distribution of existing medical stores and the rise of unsanitary conditions would lead to epidemics and the return of previously “eradicated” diseases in the US (ie cholera, malaria)

What about people in the ICU or on ventilators? Well, their lights go out with the hospitals, when the emergency generators finally run out. People who need radiotherapy, MRI’s, CAT scans, invasive surgeries, transplants? Nope, all dead. People who need dialysis machines? Sorry, buddy no can do. If it needs electricity then you just can’t use it.

Your wife who needs a C-Section to deliver the baby? Well I hope the baby doesn’t need an incubator because otherwise…

And it’s not like the hospital and medical services will have the time, space or resources to deal with everyone. They’ll try their best but ultimately the demand will just be too much.

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Hang in their fellas

What about places like California? Even with the massive monetary, industrial and technological resources the state has they still find themselves in the midst of a water crisis. Now try and imagine that with no electricity and you’ll get a place closer to Mad Max than Orange County.

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

Real of footage of Californians when someone takes a water bottle out

It’s not like Californians can take the highways out (clogged with broken down, gas-less cars), a plane (no fuel and civilian air traffic probably grounded any way) and the train lines? Too busy moving aid and materiel in and out of the state, in a desperate attempt to keep those within sustained with aid, and when the trains fuel runs out, all you’ve got left is a 1000 ton paper weight.

The subways? Flooded, no pumps to keep’ em dry

What would happen if the world had a large power cut?

And we haven’t even gotten to the fire pumps, the ones that keep the hydrants pressurised. Sure they, like hospitals and banks and other public infrastructure, have emergency fallback systems but those are only short term stop-gap measures, designed to fill the role of the main pumps till they’re repaired.

They aren’t designed to hold out for the long term, (e

What are the mobile payment solutions available in india?

Dev Sharma

Dev Sharma, Making mobile payments fun & hassle free at MyPoolin!!

Répondu il y a 154w

There are many mobile payment options in India like Mobikwik, PayTM, Oxigen wallets and more recently banks that have entered the mobile digital payments space as well such as SBI, Axis Bank etc.

There's also an interesting app that is a first of its kind in India - MyPoolin. The app deals with Group Payments. In the app, you add people in a group from your phone's contact list and everyone pays their share individually for any expense on the app itself. The money collected can be used at restaurants, movies, concerts, gifting from online stores etc..

What are the mobile payment solutions available in india?

Courtesy de l'image: MyPoolin
Source: Personally working towards making Mobile Payments fun and hassle free

Muthu Krishnan

Muthu Krishnan

Répondu il y a 65w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 197 et de vues de réponses 308.6k

The digital wallet is an electronic device which helps the individuals to carry out the electronic transaction. You can use the wallet for shopping at http://stores.An individual’s bank account is linked with the Wallet. This is the way the digital portefeuilles work.It passed the account information to the merchant’s terminal through Near Field communication technology.Carrying money is not safe in this world.So the digital wallets help you to keep your financial transactions safely without any worries. Here we have listed some best digital wallets across the wallets.The most popular in this list is Google Wallet and Apple Pay. Because a wide variety of people are using both of these wallets for their transactions.

Carrying money is not safe in this http://world.So le portefeuilles numériques help you to keep your financial transactions safely without any worries. Here we have listed some best digital wallet app.The most popular in this list is Google Wallet and Apple Pay. Because a wide variety of people are using both of these wallets for their transactions.

portefeuille Google

Google Wallet is the fast and free way digital wallet app to send and request money to your friends and family. You can send money using their email address or phone number. The people whom you are sending money doesn’t need to keep the Google Wallet app. The most important thing is you don’t need to pay any fees to send or receive money. It is completely free for all the people.

De plus, portefeuille Google stores your data on secure servers and encrypts your payment information with industry-standard SSL technology.

Payez d'Apple

Apple’s Pay is the most trusted digital wallet app for iOS users. It also works with Near Field Communication technology. You just hold your iPhone near the reader with your finger on Touch ID or double-click the side button on your Apple Watch, then hold it near the Reader.it is coming soon provides you with the hassle free transactions. With this, you can purchase all kinds of apps in App Store.Checking out is as simple as placing your finger on Touch ID.

When you make a purchase, Payez d'Apple uses a device-specific number and unique transaction code. So your card number is never stored on your device or our servers, and when you pay, your card numbers are never shared by Apple with merchants.

Capital One Wallet

Capital One Wallet is the best digital wallet app. You can receive instant purchase notifications when you use your Capital One credit or debit card. If you misplace your credit card you can instantly lock your card and turn it back again.

Digitise your gift cards, receive notifications when you’re near the retailer, and pay through the app.

Lire la suite: Google wallet Vs Android Pay

E-Portefeuille

E-wallet is one of the best digital wallet app from Ilium software.it est portefeuille mobile that you can use to store and access all of your sensitive payment and personal information.It's also one of the few electronic wallet apps that aren't free.The account numbers are secured with 256-bit Military Grade AES encryption, and grant you instant access to them using a single password or touch ID. It has Fingerprint scanner support on compatible Android 6 devices.This digital wallet provides you random password generator to keep your login details safe and secure.

The account numbers are secured with 256-bit Military Grade AES encryption, and grant you instant access to them using a single password or touch ID. It has Fingerprint scanner support on compatible Android 6 devices.This digital wallet provides you random password generator to keep your login details safe and secure.

Samsung Pay

Samsung Pay allows you to carry your credit, debit, gift and membership cards on your devices. You can add your Visa, MasterCard or American Express cards issued by our partner banks. Samsung Pay currently supports 1000+ banks and credit indice works in-store and in-app.Samsung Rewards lets you earn points for every purchase with Samsung http://Pay.It will allow you to use them to redeem rewards like gift cards and entry into instant win games.If you participate in eligible promotions, you can get value on your Samsung Rewards card.

You can enter promo code 'SIGNUP' before your 1st purchase with Samsung Pay to earn $5 in rewards.

Paypal

PayPal is one of the most popular and trusted paiement mobile wallets with a 173 million users across 203 countries and 26 currencies. In addition to storing credit and debit cards on the digital wallet, you can also link directly to your bank accounts and carry a balance on your PayPal account.Whenever you send, receive, and spend money with PayPal, the app sends an instant notification to help you keep track of it all. The wallet app is free and is available for Apple, Android and Windows phones and tablets.

Android Pay

[appbox googleplay com.google.android.apps.walletnfcrel]

Android Pay is the best digital wallet app for Android.We can just add your credit, debit, loyalty, and gift cards to Android Pay, and start shopping in stores, in apps, and online.This wallet is used at millions of stores around the world. Now you can earn and redeem your loyalty points automatically when you use Android Pay. Available for Walgreens Balance Rewards and Coke MyRewards cards. Simply hold your phone to the terminal before you pay and never miss out on points again.

When you use your phone to pay in stores, Android Pay doesn’t send your actual credit or debit card number with your payment. Instead, they are using a virtual account number to represent your account info. So your card details will be safe and secure.

Walmart Pay

Walmart Pay is Walmart’s digital wallet app and it’s available as a feature on the mega retailer’s popular Walmart App. The wallet app is free and available for both Apple and Android phones. It supports all major credit and debit cards, and you can use the Walmart Pay app nationwide in each of the chain’s 4,600 stores.Walmart doesn’t currently accept any other mobile wallets.

To access Walmart Pay, you download the Walmart App and create a http://Walmart.com account. You can then update your profile to add the debit or credit card of your choice. The app also accepts prepaid cards, and you can load the app with your Walmart gift cards. Like most mobile wallets, you cannot link the app to your checking account. If you’re one of the more than 20 million active Walmart App users, all you need to do to access the Walmart Pay feature is to update the app and then add or select your preferred payment card.

You can store the gift cards and instantly receive the e-receipt for every purchase.

The Walmart Pay app uses QR codes to complete transactions rather than the NFC technology employed by Apple Pay and Android Pay. However, like these other mobile wallets, the transaction and your payment card information are secure.

Gyft

Gyft is the most secure mobile gift card app in the market. With Gyft, you can manage, store, and check the balance of your plastic gift cards. Use the app to conveniently redeem your gift cards in stores, right from your phone. There is a special offer running right now for the wallet users.

Get $5 off a $25 Cold Stone Gift Card. Use promo code ICECREAM at checkout.

Porte-clés

Fagan launched the first version of Porte-clés on the Android marketplace in June 2009.Key Ring is the app for loyalty cards and savings while shopping. It provides consumers with access to exclusive deals from their favourite retailers and CPG brands.You’ll find the best sales with weekly ads for stores like Walmart, Target, CVS, Walgreens, Kohl’s, Michaels, and more. There is a Barcode scanner technology to add your loyalty cards and supports over 200 bar codes.

Niveau supérieur

Niveau supérieur is a loyalty-based digital mobile wallet app used by one and a half million users at more than 14,000 participating businesses nationwide. Its appeal is that it offers you rewards for shopping with participating businesses. In fact, you receive a starting credit for using the app to pay the first time you visit a participating business, and you can continue to earn rewards each time you go back. It gives you instant digital receipts and lets you track your purchases and rewards.it gives you the power to order your coffee, lunch or afternoon snack directly with a single tap and have it ready when you get there.

You can open the app and tap “Create New Order” to see all the places near you. Browse through the menu and when you’re ready to hit “Place My Order.” Over time, we'll highlight your favourites on the home screen for one-touch ordering.

These are some of the best mobile wallets in India to make online payments. Hope you find this post useful and start using them right now. Want options? Take a look at these Alternatives à PayPal

L'utilisation de portefeuilles mobiles sur votre mobile vous permet d'effectuer des paiements sans argent et de faire des paiements depuis votre mobile. Si vous en utilisez déjà un, faites-le nous savoir dans les commentaires que vous préférez et pourquoi.

Karanbir Singh Saluja

Karanbir Singh Saluja, Sr Marketing Executive at KocharTech (2015-present)

Répondu il y a 74w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 124 et de vues de réponses 99k

There are many mobile payment solutions available in India, depending on the purpose and application.

Some of the types are:

  • Mobile wallets like PayTm, Mobikwik, Freecharge, and others.
  • UPI payment apps that don’t need to be topped-up/recharged and can pay directly from the linked bank account
  • Mobile payment solutions from banks like ICICI, SBI, and others
  • Mobile payment solutions from telecom operators like mPesa (Vodafone), Airtel Money
  • Professional Payment solutions, used by retail chains and other businesses to collect payments.

If you are deploying a mass number of POS systems, you should consider the security of various transactions and the customer data flowing through the devices.

Moreover, business owners are embracing Android tablets as POS terminals, which are easy to setup but come in with a number of challenges. Nevertheless, such challenges can be addressed through MDM.

SandeepRaje Nalawade

SandeepRaje Nalawade, Business Developmet Executive

Répondu il y a 35w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 52 et de vues de réponses 11.7k

I think this list will be incomplete without naming OBOPAY .

OBOPAY fournit

  1. Porte-monnaie numérique
  2. Cardless ATM
  3. Airtime TopUp
  4. Biller/Merchant Payments
  5. Group Savings Accounts
  6. Open/Closed Loop Cards
  7. Family Money
  8. P2P Payment
  9. International Remittance
  10. Comptes d'épargne

OBOPAY was Established in 2005, OBOPAY is among the earliest entrants in the money service technology products segment. Obopay offers businesses a unique, integrated processing platform that is capable of linking multiple participants into a transaction network by adapting to a variety of payment technologies.

Ankush Bhalla

Ankush Bhalla, Btech Informatique et MBA en finance, SRMIET, Ambala (2013)

Répondu il y a 47w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 108 et de vues de réponses 142.9k

FOR BEST MOBILE PAYMENTS SOLUTIONS IN INDIA

app :- CU App - India's UPI Payment, Chat and Online Shopping App

Télécharger ici-

Playstore

AppStore

What are the mobile payment solutions available in india?

Rohit Singh

Rohit Singh, a vécu en Inde

Répondu il y a 34w

Mobile payment has the biggest digital change in India in recent years. Every company, especially e-commerce have started offering mobile payment options to its customer to add personalized service. The digital payment option is not limited to e-commerce, but also in banks, telecom and other financial institutions. Known as the mobile wallet, it is much easier to handle digital money and do the transactions.

Even banks offer mobile payment or digital wallet option for customer to conduct the transaction. In India, one of the leading mobile payment solutions is Arttha. The digital wallet solution from Arttha is designed to make the payment method for banking and financial institute easy and fast. It’s a unified solution bringing a combination of core-banking, e-wallet and financial products. Some features of digital payment methods provided by Arttha include:

  • Multi-factor authentication with biometric and soft token
  • Multi-currency, multi-lingual mobile app
  • In-built loyalty management solution
  • Card issuance linked to wallet

Banking entrepreneurs are embracing the new banking payment solution to offer convenient service at the core.

Quels sont les changements de mode de vie qui permettent d'économiser de l'argent?

Coba Weel

Coba Weel, Imbécile de technicien. Abandon du doctorat en économie.

Mise à jour il y a 82w · En vedette sur HuffPost et Lifehacker · L'auteur dispose de réponses 2.4k et de vues de réponses 5.6m

Read up on économie comportementale and think about the ways that your own spending decisions are biased.

A dollar is a dollar, not a percentage of what you're buying

Remember that saving 5% on a $10000 item is not at all like saving 5% on a $10 item. But in order to process decision problems at different scales, the brain tends to normalize things so the two cases appear similar. Ever since I studied behavioral economics, I started spending less time worrying about saving 20 cents on spaghetti, but I spent a lot of time thinking about what car to buy and making sure I got a good deal on it. You can buy a lot of spaghetti for a $4k discount on a car, and yet I see people who spend lots of time on grocery coupon clipping but never stop to consider whether they could move to a cheaper apartment, drive a cheaper car, etc.

Be very careful with periodic payments

But at the same time... Convert monthly payments into longer periods when you are thinking about them. A "mere" $100 cell phone contract actually costs you $2400 over the duration of the 2-year contract, and getting an $80 contract instead saves you $480. For the same reason, renegotiating or changing your cable contract (claim you're planning to switch to fiber), insurance, mortgage is likely to have a much better money-savings-the-time-spent ratio than coupon clipping. It may take several dozen hours to research how to refinance your mortgage, but it may save you money each month for the next 20 years, and that adds up! Apartment rent is another such tricky thing. The difference between a $1400 or $1600 apartment does not seems as large as it is, and that is of course why the rent is quoted per month, and not for the whole period of the lease. (I hear that in London, the practice is to quote rent per week!) (For an even more extreme example, my local NPR station recently asked people to pledge $1 un jour.)

Risk aversion, insurance, and warranty

Think about risk aversion and see if you're being inconsistent, especially when it comes to insurance (often a scam) and extended warranties (nearly always a scam). An old saying passing its way through my family is that you should insure yourself for things that would bankrupt you. Would it bankrupt you if you totaled that 2000 Corolla? If you didn't get an extended warranty on your fridge and it were to break, just how destitute would you be after paying $700 for a new one? (And yes, $700 really does buy you a decent fridge in the US, much larger than the family of 5 I grew up in ever had when I was a kid.) I have heard of people getting insurance for their windows (in case somebody breaks them). If you have so little savings and so little credit limit that you cannot pay for a broken window... that is précisément when you should reconsider such frivolous expenses as window insurance. (I don't know if window insurance exists in the US, but I saw it marketed pretty aggressively in Holland.) Also, your credit card may already offer extended warranties on anything you buy with it; American Express is especially nice about it, but other firms do it too.

Don't be a cheapskate

And last, again not from economics but from personal experience: I have found that being too stingy has often led me to buy inferior things that later have to be replaced, and for many values of X, two cheap Xs cost more than one expensive X. But combine that with the IKEA rule: any product category at IKEA will have a cheapest item, which is inferior in quality, a second cheapest item, which is better, and a bunch of others which merely look different in some way. (My canonical examples are woks and bookcases, both of which come in considerable variety, of which only the very cheapest is actually really inferior.) Or, to put it a bit more generally: there are diminishing marginal quality returns to paying more. I have a $70 coat rack that, unlike the $25 coat rack I considered briefly, does not fall over when you hang a heavy coat on it. I consider that worth paying three times as much for. But you can easily blow $700 on a coat rack. Is that 10 times as good as mine?

Données, données, données

The first thing they teach you (or should teach you, anyway) about optimizing a computer program is measure first, optimize later. Same with personal finance. If you optimize the bits that happen to strike you as being interesting or easy to optimize, you're like the guy who looked for his keys under the lamppost "because that's where the light is." Get something like menthe or Capital personnel to gather all your financial data and look over it. Where are the biggest advantages to be had? It may be not in the payments you deal with everyday and that come easily to mind (groceries, gas, that sort of thing).

(Note that Personal Capital and Mint are both free services that have to make money somehow, but with very different business models. Personal Capital tries to convince you to let them manage your investments, and has a very strict policy against sharing with third parties. Mint uses your data for marketing all sorts of things, on the other hand, and even lets “affiliates” use it to determine your creditworthiness. I wouldn’t trust their privacy policy as far as I can throw it.)

Coût de la vie

The nuclear option to reducing cost of living is to go and live in a cheap place. If my $1500/month apartment in Redwood City were in Topeka, Kansas I'd be paying about $500 for it. Now as it happens, there are good reasons I don't live in Topeka: Redwood City has some perks, like Climate Best By Government Test, proximity to my job, proximity to my friends, proximity to lots of potential jobs and potential friends, etc. But if you really need to start spending less right now, moving to a cheaper place is something you need to keep in mind. Another big expense for many people is often a car. If you can live and work in a place where you don’t need one, or you can at least reduce the number of cars in your household, that can save you a lot of money when you add it all up.

Shop around periodically for periodic payments

My grandma once signed up for a cell phone plan back in the day when cell phones came with pull-out antennas to improve reception. The plan was outrageously expensive by today's standards and had not been offered to new customers for many years, but the telco had never bothered to inform her that she could get the same service for a fraction of the money. In other words: just because you were responsible and found a good deal on your cell phone plan, car insurance, annual chimney sweep, or whatever, does not mean that it's still a good deal.

Debt and savings and investments

Unsecured consumer debt can be very expensive. Making payments on a 20% APR credit card or store credit is a much better investment than any mutual fund can give you. Unless you are about to declare bankruptcy anyway, you should probably consider any option to get rid of high-interest debt, including digging into savings you promised yourself you wouldn't dig into.

Coupons, special offers, and the like

In general, I think chasing coupons and special offers and the like is often more trouble than it's worth and exposes you to the temptation to buy things you wouldn't otherwise have bought just because they are, or seem to be, cheaper than they normally are.

But... if you understand the economics behind these things, it becomes easier to spot the cases where you can really actually save some money. Whether a particular discount scheme actually saves you significant money is pretty closely correlated with whether there is an obvious underlying economic reason for offering the discounts. (That is, a reason above and beyond the fact that shouting "we have discounts" has a slight psychological effect regardless of whether your prices are any good.)

One such case is discounts given to adjust for fluctuating demand. This is especially relevant for restaurants. They need to charge more at peak times, and to do that without being accused of price gouging they give discounts at non-peak times. They all do so in different clumsy ways, and you can eat very cheaply if you figure out all the Wednesday Lunch Specials and suchlike.

Another case of fluctuating demand is seasonality. Consumer electronics, toys, etc really are cheaper after Christmas. That's because a large fraction of consumer electronics get sold just before Christmas. Afterward, retailers have inventory that will either go out of style or at least be expensive to keep on the books until next Christmas (opportunity cost, storage cost, etc.) Same with out-of-season clothes.

Taxes

In the US, taxes unfortunately tend to depend a lot on details of how you spend and invest your money. Learning about these is boring to many people, but it really pays off, especially for higher incomes. Here's an example of how screwy the tax system can be.

Imagine identical tract homes A, B, and C. Joe buys home A for $250k and sells it after 30 years for $750k. Jane buys home B, sells it after 15 years for $500k, buys home C for $500k, and sells it after 15 more years for $750k. Joe pays a $37.5k of capital gains tax. Jane pays none. WTF? Well, current law exempts $250k of capital gains from real estate pour chaque transaction (with lots of conditions and provisos, consult a CPA, etc.). If you spread out your capital gains over two transactions, you get twice the exemption (provided you meet all the conditions and provisos etc.)

The technique Jane used is known as "tax gain harvesting." For some investments, though, you want to do the opposite: "tax loss harvesting." It's all horribly arcane and requires shuffling pieces of paper (or entries in electronic ledgers) around in just the right way. But it can save you a lot of money.

Buy used

Buying used often makes sense, depending on why people are selling the used item. Things people get rid of for purely aesthetic reasons are especially likely to have a lot of remaining use in them.

Probably the best example of where buying used is a great deal is appliances. People throw out washers and dryers because they got bigger ones, they switched from gas to electric or vice versa, and other reasons that have nothing to do with whether the appliance is functional. Things that go in kitchens (fridge, stove, etc.) may get tossed for purely aesthetic reasons. Every US metro area has a few used appliance dealers that'll sell you these things. Typically they'll even deliver and install, so you get all the same convenience you'd get from buying at Sears or Home Depot.

Things like eBay and Craigslist have vastly improved the liquidity and efficiency of used goods markets, but be careful to check you're really getting a good deal. I've seen cheap harbor freight tools on craigslist for more than their original price. Reclaimed lumber prices are currently going crazy at least here in the Bay Area and you're much cheaper off buying new in many cases.

When in doubt about quality it can help to simply ask the seller why they are selling. Many people who are willing to advertise defective goods to the public at large aren't very good at lying to someone standing right in front of them.

Skyler Irvine

Skyler Irvine, CEO RenzlerMedia

Répondu il y a 145w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 374 et de vues de réponses 2.1m

Everything they told me was a lie.

Get good grades so you get into a good college

Graduate from college so you get a good job.

Get a good job and do what you are told. They will give you money, health insurance and stability.

No one told me there would be recessions.

Mass layoffs.

Non-existent job markets.

But that's ok! I hated that job anyway. I hated that job more than most people will ever hate their job. Jobs, in the traditional sense, aren't for people like me.

Here are a few things I learned during this time:

  1. To get rich, build wealth, or create financial freedom for yourself, it's not 'how you make' your money that matters, but rather, 'what you do with the money you make' that determines your lifestyle and well-being.
  2. Budgeting sucks. It's like dieting, which also sucks. Lifestyle changes are more permanent and actually work. So instead of focusing on the money going out, focus on increasing the money coming in. This means save/invest your money FIRST, then spend whatever is left. If you are out of money to spend, then you won't buy stuff you don't need.
  3. Cutting needless expenses is just as important as increasing income, as it has the same impact on your livelihood.

I was broke, unemployed, in debt, and had to move back in with my parents at 24 years old, and for me it was the best thing that could have happened. (Read: Back When I Was Lucky: Unemployed, In Debt, And Living With My Parents )

I tried it 'their way' and it didn't work. So I was going to try something different. I focused on one expenses at a time. Living at home allowed me to have much lower expenses of course, but there were still costs that society has you pay just to get through the month.

Step One: Examine your costs

What are the things you have to pay for on a monthly basis that you NEED. Cannot live without? Food, Shelter, Insurance goes into this category. Are their ways you can lower this number?

Shelter can include mortgages on a home, rent, whatever. If you need transportation for work, that is a necessity, but do you need a brand new car payment, or do you live too far from where you work so that 4 hours of your weekly paycheck go to pay for your transportation?

These are the things you must analyze and then reexamine every few months.

Step Two: Determine your Survival Number

This is how much money you need to have saved, meaning whatever your monthly costs are times 6 needs to be in a savings account that you don't mess with. In an emergency, this will get your through 6 months (some very cautious people prefer 12 months)

Step Three: Alternative Income Streams.

Once you figure out EXACTLY how much money YOU NEED each month to survive, and then you have saved up your survival number, it's time for the best part. Investing in future you!

(At this point you may be wondering, if you have even read this far, what this has to do with helping you save money. Stay with me)

For me, and many like me, it's tough to budget and save with no plan, or structure. "Just throwing money into a savings account and hoping it turns into a million dollars, but oops, I needed new tires and now I am back to square one"

My purpose was to never have to work for someone else again. I would do anything to achieve this goal, even if it meant temporarily having to work for other people. Whatever it took, I had a purpose.

I needed to find a way to generate enough income to cover my monthly expenses.

If I could generate this income, and kept my expenses where they were, then I WOULD NEVER NEED TO GET A JOB AGAIN.

When your passive income exceeds your expenses, you are free to live the life you choose.

I told my parents my plan at 24 years old. My mom told me I needed health insurance. In her mind that meant I needed to get a job. In my mind that meant finding out what it would cost, and then start a business, a company, a projects, invest in a stock that pays dividends, buy a cash flow rental property, whatever it took!

Saving money is hard, especially when you don't have structure, a strategy or a purpose.

If you can determine your WHY, it becomes easier.

Why do I want to save money? Family? Freedoms? Travel? Adventure? Nerves?

It doesn't matter as long as it works for you!

Then instead of buying this or that you think about your why.

  1. Determine your necessary expense costs
  2. Save up your survival number
  3. Focus on increasing your passive income to exceed your expense numbers.
  4. Keep growing it! Don't increase expenses. If you want something new, find a new monthly income stream first!

I know this is a long post, but if you have made it this far you have a little more left in you.

I call this whole belief concept the Cash Flow Lifestyle. Focus on the passive income first.

Par exemple:

I wanted a new truck ( a really nice one ) after I had my first company succeed. I was making money, living in my own place and had multiple streams of income. Better yet I had enough cash saved up to buy the truck I wanted cash! It was abotu $50,000 for a Ford F-150 Platinum, brand new blah blah.

It was on my 'vision board' for over a year. Sure, all the budget books say buy a used one, but I have never had a new car before.

But instead of buying the Truck, I instead bought a rental property with the money I saved up, and it was cash flow positive at about $450/month.

I financed the truck for 5 years and this monthly cash flow paid for the truck payment.

Sounds pretty good right?

Better yet, eventually this truck was paid off and I still owned this asset! The monthly income not only continued, but it GREW. Additionally, the value of the property GREW! Today, the property has risen in value, I no longer own that truck which had a trade in value of about half what I paid for it.

So what does all this have to do about tricks for saving money?

For me, focusing on the big picture made saving on a day to day period not only doable, but easy. It became a lifestyle.

Budgeting is like dieting. But lifestyle changes are permanent. There are a lot of tricks to save money. Don't buy Starbucks. Cook meals at home. Blah blah. I know, they do work if you can actually do it.

But the problem is splurging. If you don't have structure, you will eventually have a feeling of "what am I saving for anyway", and then buy something you don't need just to feel better.

  1. Focus on your INCOME,
  2. Keep Expenses LOW
  3. Find your WHY
  4. Keep Growing your INCOME
  5. Keep Your Expenses LOW because this will have the same impact as increasing income, but is much easier to do.

For more information on this concept, or ways to grow passive income, check out www.CashFlowLifestyle.net

À votre santé!

(Please excuse any typos, I wrote this on my iPad)

Dean Yeong

Dean Yeong, I live consciously. Published on Elite Daily, Thought Catalog and more.

Mise à jour il y a 80w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 483 et de vues de réponses 11.1m

Quels sont les changements de mode de vie qui permettent d'économiser de l'argent?

  1. Lues, read Rich Dad Poor Dad. The best lesson I learned from the book—assets are what put money into your pocket, liabilities are what take money out of your pocket. That said, your prestigious house and luxury car are not your assets.
  2. Budget your rent at 10–15% of your income. If it’s too low, live in a smaller place or stay with your parents.
  3. Make it a habit of organizing your living space, so you don’t buy things you already have.
  4. When you feel like buying something immediately in first sight, walk away for 10 minutes. That 10 minutes help you to figure out whether the purchase is a need or simply an emotional urge to buy.
  5. Plan before you move to a new place. Do some research on the public transportation available. In most cases, you don’t need a car.
  6. Learn to cook for yourself. Even better, come up with 4 lunch and 4 dinner recipes, cook the same lunch and the same dinner for a week. Rotate.
  7. Like Terrence Yang pointed out, stop dating materialistic people.
  8. Only when you make sure your partner is okay to live frugally, live together. This helps to cut many expenses down to half such as electricity bills, internet bills, house maintenance, etc.
  9. Set up an auto-transfer of part of your monthly earnings to a locked saving account. Make it a habit of saving before you spend.
  10. Use YNAB to budget. It helps me to gain clarity on my spending habits, at the same times, made me think before about what I need (and want) to spend, before I spend. Subscribe to Appsumo if you spend a lot on digital products and tools.

Ashwin Pajankar

Ashwin Pajankar, Frugal Guy, knows value of resources

Mise à jour il y a 231w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 231 et de vues de réponses 816.5k

Réponse d'origine: What are some lifestyle changes, small or large, that save money (e.g. downgrading cable TV options, cutting down on heat/AC, drinking less alcohol, etc.)?

Well I would really like to share my opinion about this. If you are able to access the website like Quora then at this moment of time you're in really good position and you can get your finances together to you consciously work towards it.

I would be answering the specific questions asked by you, however I have few points as general guidelines, which I would like to mention first. You do not have to do large modifications.

  1. Do not fall victim for instant gratification. It is the biggest killer of the modern era. I really would like to concur with Terrence Yang's opinion on this.
  2. Start living simply. Do not have material possessions beyond your basic requirements which keeps you safe and healthy. Few tips for this are as follows.
  • Stay near your office/workplace. This helps on multiple fronts. It saves time for commute. It saves money on commute. You can buy a small bike, bicycle or even walk till the office like me. Last 2 options would also be good enough to complete your 50% of quota for physical exercise.
  • Do not compromise on basic things for saving money. It's not worth it. You'll end up in trouble by spending more on health and medical expenses.
  • Eat homemade healthy food. Do not eat outside unless absolutely necessary.
  • Have good Health and Life insurance. Check your company healthcare policy and insurance. You also must have the company doctor or dispensary. Use these things for maximum benefit.
  • Use the gym at office. It would save money for separate gym. If your office does not have gym or if it's too crowded then or you're shy to exercise in presence of many people then you can practice Yoga like I practice in privacy of your home. All it takes is free space of 4x6, a cotton mattress and willpower. It will minimize your medical expenses.
  • If you are in India (like me) have a reliable source of potable water. Buy an electronic UV water filter if needed. Will cost you hardly 6000K (100$). It will help you to minimize the cost and pain due to waterborne diseases. Do not buy an RO type water filter unless you're getting water which contains heavy metals like copper, arsenic and zinc in large quantity. Normal hard groundwater is safe for human consumption unless any mine, chemical or fertilizer plant is in close vicinity. And groundwater rich in calcium and potassium can actually serve as dietary supplement.
  • Have very basic things at home. TV is overrated. Don't buy a TV. You'll be bombarded upon by adverts and it would provoke you to buy more. You'll also be compelled to buy cable which is bad for your pocket and health.
  • De-clutter your home/ Living space. Don't have any decorations. More stuff you have more time you spend on taking care of the stuff than tking care of yourself.

These are all the lifestyle changes in personal life which are very private and people at your workplace are unlikely to know about it. Now few obvious and visible things I would advice, you might get a lot of heat from peers, friends and family members for this.

  • Let's start with a bit less obvious things. When you are out at a party, eat in moderation. Stick to simple, healthy and easy to digest stuff. Most of the cases of food poisoning and sickness result from mass prepared food at eateries and canteens as well as parties.
  • If you ask me about alcohol, I never tasted it and never felt that it's necessary in India for health as India is a relatively warm place. But if you are in western nations where it's too cold and you have to consume alcoholic beverages to stay warm, then I am not qualified to answer this as I never consumed alcohol.
  • I would say same thing for eggs and meat. I am complete vegetarian for religious purpose and it actually makes sense here due to relatively warmer climate. Also Non veg food is very costly as it is costly to raise animals and devote the feed for them as you can feed 2 times more people with corn or wheat. But I really cannot comment about this as if you're in Europe then it might be difficult to maintain health without having non vegetarian food.
  • I would say smoking and the drugs are absolutely unnecessary things to be addicted to. I am not gonna try to convince you for this.

If you live simple life like this, you would never run into any financial trouble. However, I cannot guarantee you that you would not run in "ANY" trouble. The most obvious trouble you would be running into is social trouble. We're living in an era of he consumerism. You would be judged from not only how much you earn, but how much you show you spend. That's it's become the prestige thing to suffer from lifestyle related diseases like Diabetes, High BP and other cardiovascular ailments. If you live like I mentioned above, people would make fun at you and you would be excluded from social events because of your frugal lifestyle, people would not care if you are can afford to live exorbitantly. They'll just see if you spend like them. So to live life this you need to have powerful allies with you. You can enlist and confide people very close to you. If you are not financially dependent on anyone then it would be a great thing.

  1. Talk it out with your spouse/ live in partner/ bf or gf. (S)he would prove to be most important ally/enemy in this battle against crazy consumerism. If your views on finances and spending do not match then cancel your plans for frugal living or be ready for the heartbreak. I would choose the later and before marriage I discussed and talked to my fiancee about it directly stating my choice directly to her. If you are not in a committed relationship, check with your would be partner as this is the biggest thing in relationship break up.
  2. Talk to people who are close to you after your spouse. They would probably include your siblings and adult kids. If the kids are very small then you're kind of helpless as they would be bombarding you with their nagging and they would probably want the same toy as their friends/ Be ready for that. Adults should be understanding, but if they berate/ belittle you, do not get discouraged. Stick to your plan.
  3. Stay away from the people who are financial liability due to their way of spending. I know of many people who buy a big TV or XBox One but do not get the health or term insurance for themselves and rely of social connections for emergency funds. I also know of people who spend without thinking of tomorrow and beg people for money when times are bad. These people are liabilities. Better to stay away from them and maintain a respectable distance from them.
  4. You cannot curb the office gossips and general talks people do about you in the social circles. But as the time would progress, you would notice that you would be much happier than the way you're living now. People would admire you in secrecy and would try to do the stuff like you but will not say these things to you directly. Few years down the line you can also coach people with their finances and frugal living. And if you are master of words then you can become a new age spiritual leader. ��

Naveenkumar Murugan

Naveenkumar Murugan, Senior Software Engineet at DXC Technology (2015-pr

Existe-t-il de bons articles pour comprendre la technologie sous-jacente à la blockchain (plutôt que de donner un aperçu de ce qu'une blockchain peut faire)?

Gopal Das

Gopal Das, Consultant principal chez Jardine Lloyd Thompson Group

Répondu il y a 34w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 72 et de vues de réponses 36.5k

Présentation de Bitcoin et Blockchain

Bitcoin, un système de crypto-monnaie et de paiement inventé par une personne ou un groupe de personnes sous le nom de Satoshi Nakamoto, dont l'identité dans le monde réel est encore inconnue.

C’est la première crypto-monnaie qui résout double dépense blockchain, un grand livre distribué géré par un réseau P2P, supprime le recours à une seule autorité de confiance et établit un système de paiement sans confiance reposant sur une preuve cryptographique utilisant preuve de travail (PoW).

Un nouvel argent ou une richesse

Bitcoin est un nouveau type d'argent ou de richesse. créé à partir de rien ou plutôt nous devrions dire, en dépensant de l’électricité pour faire fonctionner des ordinateurs spécialisés, en effectuant beaucoup de calculs.

Mineurs

Aucune autorité centrale n’émet de Bitcoin. Ce sont les mineurs qui gèrent la blockchain et le système Bitcoin en général. Et ce sont eux qui créent / exploitent tous les bitcoins et les possèdent lors de la création. D'autres achètent chez eux. Oui, tous les bitcoins ont été possédés par un mineur au moment de leur création ou de leur extraction.

Cependant, n'importe qui peut acheter des ordinateurs et devenir mineur en rejoignant le réseau. C'est aussi simple que d'installer certains logiciels et de les exécuter. Cependant, exploiter des bitcoins, c'est comme gagner à la loterie, cela dépend de votre puissance de calcul. Si vous (ou votre groupe minier) avez l'ordinateur le plus puissant et un peu de chance, vous pourrez éventuellement l'exploiter. Cependant, savoir si cela sera économiquement viable ou non est une question différente. La façon dont les mineurs génèrent des bitcoins sera plus claire plus tard.

Combien de mineurs travaillent actuellement sur la blockchain Bitcoin?

Approvisionnement limité

Le protocole Bitcoin stipule qu’il y aurait un maximum de millions de Bitcoins (BTC) 21 créés par 2140, à un taux décroissant. Chaque année 4, le nombre de bitcoins extraits sera réduit de moitié. Ainsi, la production de bitcoins sera ralentie et, à un moment donné, arrêtée. Nous ferons des calculs plus tard.

C’est l’offre limitée de bitcoins qui convainc les gens de le traiter comme une sorte d’or dont la valeur, à leur avis, va progressivement s’apprécier.

Eh bien, cette offre limitée est une construction artificielle. Nous aurons une brève discussion à ce sujet à la fin.

Outre l'offre limitée, peu de choses rendent Bitcoin attrayant pour les gens.

DES ÉCHANGES

Il existe des échanges qui convertissent les bitcoins en monnaies fiduciaires (argent réel) et inversement.

VIE PRIVÉE

Au sein du réseau Bitcoin, vous êtes représenté par un numéro - votre clé publique, pour être précis. Lorsque vous envoyez des pièces à quelqu'un d'autre, tout le monde le sait. Après tout, le grand livre est public, tout le monde peut tout voir. Mais ils ne savent pas qui vous êtes dans le monde réel. C'est différent d'utiliser nos paiements habituels par carte de débit / carte de crédit lorsque la banque et le commerçant savent qui est l'acheteur. Cependant, ce n'est pas tout à fait introuvable; c'est juste difficile. Mais ce n'est pas très évident que d'acheter quelque chose en utilisant une carte de crédit.

BORDERLESS

Le système de paiement Bitcoin est basé sur un réseau P2P fonctionnant sur Internet. On peut transférer n'importe quel nombre de bitcoins de n'importe où vers n'importe où sans comptes bancaires, restrictions réglementaires, etc. Cela offre une certaine liberté et flexibilité.

TRANSACTION NON REVERSIBLE

Comme nous comprendrons lentement que, lorsqu'une transaction entre dans un bloc et que ce bloc est accepté dans la blockchain, il devient permanent et il est pratiquement impossible d'inverser. Cela donne la confiance aux personnes qui reçoivent de l'argent de ne pas être trompées plus tard.

C'est important. Comme il n'y a pas de renversement, le commerçant n'a pas besoin de vous faire confiance. Cela permet à son tour un système dans lequel les deux parties peuvent rester anonymes.

TRANSPARENCE

Comme mentionné, toutes les transactions sont ouvertes au public depuis le début et aucune autorité centrale ne les gère. Ce sont les mineurs et les nœuds (ce qui est un nœud, nous le verrons plus tard) qui les gèrent. Il sera plus clair qu'il est dans leur intérêt de rester honnête et de le gérer correctement. Cela ressemble à un système transparent.

portefeuille

Supposons que je veuille avoir des bitcoins. J'aurai alors besoin d'un portefeuille. Il existe différents fournisseurs de portefeuille comme le mont. Échange de gox. Un portefeuille peut gérer plusieurs crypto-devises. Notez que Bitcoin est la première crypto-monnaie, mais il existe 1000 +.

Un portefeuille peut avoir plusieurs adresses. Chaque adresse est essentiellement une paire de clés privée-publique. Plus précisément, c'est la clé publique qui s'appelle une adresse. Cependant, avec chaque clé publique, il existe une clé privée associée qui reste secrètement avec le propriétaire, derrière la scène.

Lors de transactions, nous utilisons ces clés. Une clé publique est utilisée pour recevoir des bitcoins et la clé privée correspondante est utilisée pour les dépenser.

En utilisant plusieurs adresses, j'essaie de cacher le solde global que je possède dans la blockchain. C'est parce que tout le monde peut voir combien de bitcoins une adresse (comme un compte dans le monde réel) possède. Mais ils ne savent pas très bien à quoi toutes les adresses appartiennent à une certaine personne derrière le rideau. Eh bien, si vous dépensez des pièces de plusieurs adresses en même temps, alors vous saurez que toutes ces adresses vous appartiennent.

Cryptographie à clé publique

Comme nous l'avons mentionné, la cryptographie à clé publique joue un rôle important dans Bitcoin / Blockchain. En particulier, la signature numérique en fait partie intégrante. Même si nous oublions le réseau P2P qui est construit au sommet d'un canal sécurisé.

La signature numérique utilise la cryptographie asymétrique - généralement basée sur RSA or Cryptographie à courbe elliptique. Bitcoin utilise Algorithme de signature numérique à courbe elliptique (ECDSA) cryptographie à courbe elliptique, probablement parce que, pour le même niveau de sécurité, il nécessite une clé beaucoup plus petite que Algorithme de signature numérique (DSA) basé sur RSA. Cela économise de la bande passante sur le réseau de chaînes de blocs P2P.

La cryptographie à clé publique fournit deux clés: une privée et une publique. Une clé privée ne doit jamais être exposée au public et reste un secret pour le propriétaire. D'autre part, la clé publique est connue de tous. Lorsque le propriétaire souhaite envoyer des informations, il prend un hachage, disons SHA-256, appelé digest, «décrypte» avec sa clé privée et envoie cette signature avec les informations d'origine.

Le destinataire prendrait le même hachage, SHA-256 dans ce cas, de l'information et la comparerait à la signature après l'avoir «cryptée». Si les deux correspondent, le destinataire sait avec certitude que les informations proviennent de la personne qui prétend les avoir envoyées et qu’elles n’ont pas été modifiées en cours de route.

Hash

Nous avons parlé de hash tout à l'heure. Eh bien, le hash est encore une fois une partie intégrante de Bitcoin / blockchain. Une fonction de hachage cryptographique utilise une transformation mathématique d'une longueur d'informations arbitraire en une chaîne de bits de petite taille fixe. Un léger changement dans les entrées entraînerait une sortie radicalement différente. Cela peut ne pas toujours arriver - deux entrées peuvent donner la même valeur de hachage - mais les chances sont extrêmement faibles.

Le hachage est une fonction à sens unique dans le sens où la sortie peut être calculée facilement à partir d'une entrée mais l'entrée ne peut pas être calculée à partir de la sortie.

Bitcoin utilise largement SHA-256. SHA signifie Secure Hash Algorithm (algorithme de hachage sécurisé). Il est développé par la NSA.

Dénominations Bitcoin

Supposons que je possède une clé privée 7 que personne, sauf moi, ne connaît. Et disons, la clé publique correspondante est 3. Donc, 3 est mon adresse que tout le monde sait. Supposons, à deux reprises, que deux personnes m'envoient deux pièces, l'une valant 3 BTC et l'autre 1.01635 BTC. Les deux ont été envoyés à mon adresse 3, ma seule adresse pour le moment. Supposons que tout le monde sache que je possède ces deux pièces.

Maintenant que j'ai 4.01635 BTC, pour une raison quelconque, je veux payer 3.01635 BTC à Bob. Comme aucune des deux pièces ne peut être utilisée seule, je dois utiliser les deux pièces ensemble. Supposons que les frais de transaction soient 0.2 BTC, ce que nous saurons plus tard. Ensuite, je récupérerai un changement de 0.8 BTC.

Voilà comment cela fonctionne dans le monde réel, non? Je veux acheter des produits 6 à un dollar, je donne un billet de 5 à un dollar et un billet de 2 à un dollar, et je récupère un billet à 1. La note $ 1 reste dans mon portefeuille jusqu'à ce que je la dépense.

Mais c'est différent d'un solde bancaire, où tout mon argent reste sans valeur nominale. Je peux dépenser n'importe quel montant, dans ce solde. Le solde restant reste en arrière sans changer le nombre de billets / pièces.

D'autre part, mon portefeuille Bitcoin ressemble plus à un scénario réel où le nombre de bitcoins peut varier, en fonction de mes dépenses et du type de modifications / paiements que je reçois.

Mais il y a une différence. Lorsque quelqu'un m'a envoyé ce 1.01635 BTC, il est devenu une pièce unique valant 1.01635 BTC. Quand j'ai besoin de l'utiliser, je dois l'utiliser dans son ensemble. Lorsque je récupère ce 0.8 BTC en tant que changement, ce changement devient à nouveau une pièce unique représentant une valeur de 0.8 BTC.

Ainsi, dans le monde Bitcoin, il n’existe pas de nombre fixe de dénominations. Quel que soit le montant que je reçoive dans une transaction, cela devient une pièce unique avec sa valeur.

Cependant, dans Bitcoin deux unités sont généralement utilisées. BTC est l'équivalent de USD, SGD, etc. et Satoshi, l'équivalent de cent, paisa, etc. Satoshi est nommé d'après l'inventeur. Comme mentionné précédemment, il y aura un maximum de 21 millions de BTC. I BTC = 100 000 000 (cent millions) Satoshi. Sinon, 1 Satoshi = 0.000 000 01 BTC. La pièce libellée le plus bas qui a été négociée jusqu'à présent dans la blockchain était 1 Satoshi.

Transaction Bitcoin

En reprenant l'exemple précédent, je souhaite payer 3.01635 BTC à Bob. J'ai deux pièces - une valeur 3 BTC et une autre 1.01635 BTC. Ces deux pièces de miennes iront comme entrées dans la transaction. Il y aura deux sorties: une pour Bob, 3.01635 BTC et la seconde pour moi, 0.8 BTC - le changement. Le reste, 0.2 BTC, sera utilisé comme frais de transaction.

Comme mentionné précédemment, tout le monde sait que je possède ces deux pièces. À deux reprises, ces deux pièces sont arrivées à mon adresse 7. Ils sont venus à mon adresse signifie, à chacune de ces occasions, que ma clé publique 7 était mentionnée dans une transaction en tant que sortie. Par conséquent, ces deux pièces sont le résultat de ces deux transactions. Et pour l'instant, ces deux transactions n'ont pas été dépensées. Par conséquent, ce sont des transactions non dépensées. Cela peut être vérifié car tous les enregistrements sont publics. C'est pourquoi il est toujours valable d'utiliser ces deux transactions en tant qu'entrées pour une nouvelle transaction.

CONTRIBUTION

Pour dépenser ces deux pièces, j'ai spécifié les deux transactions en tant qu'entrée dans une nouvelle transaction. Comment exactement je fais ça? Je reçois le hachage pour chacune des deux transactions et les répertorie dans la nouvelle transaction. N'importe qui peut regarder un hachage et déterminer à quelle transaction il fait référence.

Le vrai propriétaire dépense

Je crée ensuite une signature numérique en combinant ce hachage avec l'adresse du nouveau propriétaire (clé publique de Bob, disons 9 que je connais). pourquoi est ce que je fais ça? Eh bien, puisque j'ai signé numériquement cela avec ma clé privée, tout le monde peut vérifier qu'il ne s'agit de rien d'autre que la clé privée de la clé publique correspondante 3 (c'est-à-dire 7 et que je la possède), qui dit que les deux transactions doivent être incluses. comme entrées, ce qui signifie que les pièces soient dépensées.

Pour être plus précis, il y a deux choses qui se passent ici: 1) tout le monde sait à quelle adresse (l'adresse 7) à laquelle appartiennent les deux pièces, et 2) tout le monde peut vérifier la signature numérique en utilisant ma clé publique (c'est-à-dire 3). La signature numérique de personne d'autre n'aurait pu être vérifiée à l'aide de ma clé publique, n'est-ce pas? Il est donc vérifié que le propriétaire légitime des pièces demande maintenant à les dépenser.

Eh bien, tout va bien. Ce sont mes pièces que je dépense. Et j'ai également inclus l'adresse de Bob, qui est le destinataire, dans la signature.

SORTIE

En plus de la section d'entrée, j'ai également une section de sortie, dans laquelle j'ai répertorié deux adresses: la première est celle de Bob, spécifiée pour recevoir le code 3.01635 BTC et la seconde est ma propre adresse - elle peut être 7 ou une nouvelle adresse associée à un. nouvelle clé privée que j'ai déjà générée (notez que j'utilise plusieurs adresses). Les frais de transaction 0.2 BTC iront à un mineur que nous expliquerons plus tard.

MÊME ARGENT, PASSANT PLUS D'UNE FOIS

Si nous nous arrêtons un instant et réfléchissons, nous nous rendrons compte que tout n’est pas bon. C'est bien que je paye mes pièces de monnaie non dépensées valables à Bob. Mais que se passe-t-il si je crée également une autre transaction, comme celle ci-dessus et à la place de Bob, cette fois-ci, je paie à Alice. Attendez, alors je paie les mêmes pièces à deux personnes? Oui, et tout va bien, car aucune autorité centrale ne vérifie cela. Jusqu'à présent, nous n'avons discuté que de la possibilité de confirmer le propriétaire et que, pour le moment, la pièce n'a pas encore été dépensée. Mais cela ne peut empêcher quelqu'un de dépenser deux fois la même pièce de monnaie au même moment.

Ce problème est connu sous le nom de problème de double dépense.

BESOIN D'UNE HISTOIRE PERMANENTE ET IRRÉVERSIBLE

Supposons que si j'avais l'argent dans ma banque, je ne traiterais pas directement avec Bob ou Alice. Je demanderais plutôt à ma banque de payer la même chose aux deux. Mais la banque traiterait cela séquentiellement, même si je m'étais connecté à partir de deux machines et avais donné les deux instructions en même temps. Ce n’est qu’après avoir payé à Bob que la banque procéderait à la transaction suivante. À ce moment-là, il savait déjà que mon solde n'était pas suffisant pour payer 3.01635 BTC à Alice. Ou je ne possédais plus ces pièces.

Dans notre cas, Alice doit savoir que les deux pièces qu'on lui a données n'ont pas été dépensées auparavant. Pour cela, Alice doit connaître toutes les transactions précédentes. Comme Bitcoin ne souhaitait pas une seule partie de confiance, comme une banque, toutes ces transactions doivent être annoncées publiquement. Et toutes ces transactions annoncées publiquement doivent en quelque sorte créer une version unique de l'historique. Cela signifie qu'une fois les pièces dépensées pour payer Bob, cette transaction doit entrer dans cette histoire. Et une fois que cela est fait, essayer de payer à nouveau les mêmes pièces à Alice peut être considéré comme invalide, en consultant cette histoire.

Blockchain

Bitcoin a proposé une solution au problème de la double dépense en utilisant un serveur d’horodatage associé à PoW. Ceci s'appelle blockchain. Il sérialise les transactions en les plaçant dans une blockchain permanente et irréversible en prenant les votes à la majorité des nœuds.

À ce stade, on peut souligner que, même si la chaîne de chaînes a été inventée pour Bitcoin par l'inventeur de Bitcoin, la chaîne de chaînes est une technologie indépendante qui peut être utilisée pour de nombreuses autres applications. Bitcoin a besoin de blockchain, pas l'inverse.

BLOC

Jusqu'à présent, nous discutions de transactions. Nous allons maintenant parler de bloc, où un certain nombre de transactions valides sont regroupées. Un tel bloc inclurait également le hachage de son bloc précédent, puis serait ajouté à la chaîne de blocs existante.

Ainsi, une blockchain est une chaîne de blocs. Conserver le hachage du bloc précédent à l'intérieur d'un bloc permet de s'assurer qu'aucun bloc arbitraire ne rentre dans la chaîne de blocs.

Supposons que nous ayons actuellement des blocs 500,000 + dans la blockchain Bitcoin. Si nous changeons un peu d’historique, disons, bloc 10,234th, le bloc 10,235th deviendrait invalide. Après tout, le bloc 10,235th prend en compte le hachage du bloc 10,234th. Au fur et à mesure que le bloc 10,235th devient invalide, le suivant le sera aussi, et ainsi de suite, jusqu’au dernier créé.

On peut penser cette relation comme une relation génétique parent-enfant. Un bloc peut être pensé comme un enfant de son bloc précédent où certains gènes de son parent (bloc précédent) lui sont propagés. Maintenant, si les gènes du parent changent, les gènes de l'enfant ne correspondront plus à son parent. Maintenant, les gènes de l'enfant doivent également être modifiés pour correspondre à ceux de ses parents. Mais nous ne parlons pas seulement de deux générations. Nous devons changer tous les descendants du parent modifié, jusqu'à la dernière génération, pour maintenir la lignée valide.

NOEUDS

Bitcoin implémente la blockchain en utilisant un réseau P2P. La blockchain, comme mentionné, est la version unique de l'histoire. Il s’agit essentiellement d’un grand livre géré par les ordinateurs participants du système. Un nœud est un ordinateur participant qui tient un grand livre.

Nous avons déjà vu ce qu'est un mineur. Pour répéter, les mineurs sont un sous-ensemble de nœuds qui créent des blocs. Comme nous l’avons vu, ce sont les mineurs qui créent le bloc et gagnent / extraient des bitcoins.

Les nœuds non mineurs sont de simples volontaires. Pourquoi un nœud veut-il être volontaire? Un nœud peut être géré par un commerçant qui accepte des bitcoins pour vendre ses produits. Eh bien, il y avait 100, marchands 000 à partir de février 2015. Un commerçant se sentirait à l'aise de tenir seul un registre avant d'accepter un paiement en procédant lui-même à une vérification.

Un nœud a un droit de vote. Lorsqu'un mineur crée un bloc et diffuse le même message sur le réseau, en espérant qu'il soit ajouté dans la blockchain et qu'elle obtienne la récompense. Il incombe aux nœuds de décider si cela peut être fait. Si les nœuds majoritaires acceptent que ce soit un bloc valide uniquement, il sera ajouté.

Comment le programme beaucoup de nœuds sont là?

Chacun des nœuds vérifierait lui-même que les transactions sont toutes valables à l'intérieur du bloc. Par exemple, l'argent qu'une personne veut dépenser lui appartient réellement et qu'il n'est pas déjà dépensé. Et que la valeur d'entrée est supérieure à (l'argent supplémentaire va au mineur en tant que frais de transaction) ou égal à la valeur de sortie, etc.

Il y a encore une chose qu'un nœud va vérifier - PoW.

Preuve de travail

Comme nous l'avons déjà vu, la création d'un bloc ne prend pas de temps. Eh bien, c'est un problème. Comme mentionné précédemment, nous avons actuellement des blocs 500,000 + dans la blockchain Bitcoin. C'est l'histoire de Bitcoin. Si un bloc peut être créé très rapidement, un attaquant peut créer l'historique en un rien de temps. Si quelque chose peut être changé si vite, c'est tout sauf de l'histoire.

Nous devons créer la blockchain de manière à ce qu’elle ressemble à une histoire vraie dans le sens où elle ne peut pas être modifiée aussi facilement.

RENDRE LA CREATION DE BLOCS DIFFICILE

Pour ce faire, il devient impératif d'ajouter un certain niveau de difficulté artificielle à l'ajout d'un bloc dans le registre des chaînes de blocs. Si nous faisons cela, alors seulement nous verrions un état de blockchain que la majorité des nœuds ont accepté comme bon, nous saurions avec certitude qu'il est impossible de le changer ou d'en créer un plus long à l'avenir. Et alors seulement, nous aurions mis en place un véritable système distribué sans confiance.

NONCE

Nous avons vu qu'un mineur mettrait certaines transactions dans le bloc. Il les combinera avec l’horodatage, le numéro de bloc, le hachage du bloc précédent, etc. Mais cela, quand il sera entré dans une fonction de hachage (disons, SHA-256), aurait très probablement ne pas produire un certain nombre de zéros au début de la sortie. PoW exige qu’un mineur concatène un nonce (numéro utilisé une fois) avec cette entrée, de sorte que la sortie générée contienne un certain nombre de zéros au début.

Maintenant c'est très difficile. 508755th bloc qui a été ajouté à blockchain il y a quelque temps a calculé un tel hachage qui ressemble à ceci:

000000000000000000578f796a92e6f99c180e1084bced6a049b4be6d6764e74

Et il a utilisé le nonce 1810240736 (combiné avec input) pour générer la valeur de hachage ou le condensé ci-dessus.

Il faut environ quelques minutes à 10 pour essayer diverses valeurs de nonce prospectives avec un puissant ordinateur spécialisé (ou un pool d’exploitation minière) avant de proposer le nonce magique. Si le nombre requis de zéros est augmenté de un, la recherche d'une telle sortie de hachage prendrait le double de temps, ce qui signifie que la complexité est exponentielle dans le nombre de zéros.

AJUSTEZ LA DIFFICULTÉ

Si des minutes 10 sont nécessaires pour créer un bloc, il faut des semaines 2 pour créer des blocs 2016. C’est à cet intervalle (semaines 2) que le protocole Bitcoin ajustera la complexité pour s’assurer qu’il continue en moyenne de prendre des minutes 10 pour créer un bloc. Cette complexité, appelée difficulté dans le protocole Bitcoin, doit être calibrée périodiquement car le réseau est en train de changer, de plus en plus puissant ou parfois de s'affaiblir temporairement.

Nous voyons donc que tout le registre des Bitcoins, appelé blockchain, est une chaîne unique de blocs dont chacun a nécessité la création en minutes 10. Étant donné que chacun d'entre eux a utilisé le hachage de son bloc précédent, si un attaquant veut recréer l'historique, tous ces blocs, d'un million et plus, doivent être recréés de manière séquentielle. Cela prendrait 5 + années. Au moment où elle crée tout ce qui est présent actuellement, beaucoup plus de blocs seraient déjà ajoutés à la fin de la blockchain. Et ainsi, PoW assure un registre pratiquement impossible à modifier qui peut être considéré comme permanent.

NODE VERIFIE POW

Lorsque les nœuds choisissent un bloc, le protocole s'attend à ce qu'ils vérifient que le bloc a bien exécuté le PoW. Un nœud peut le vérifier en combinant le nonce avec l'entrée du bloc et en calculant le hachage. Et ensuite, faire correspondre le hachage calculé avec le hachage spécifié dans le bloc. Ils doivent également vérifier qu’il contient le nombre de zéros requis au début.

CHAÎNE AVEC LE PLUS GRAND POW EFFORT GAGNE

Les nœuds choisissent également un bloc qui, une fois ajouté à la chaîne, produit la chaîne de blocs la plus longue. Par blockchain la plus longue, cela signifie celui ayant le plus grand effort de PdV investi dans celle-ci.

Bloc de la Genèse

Comme son nom l'indique, blockchain contient toutes les transactions survenues depuis le début de l'époque pour Bitcoin. Le premier bloc de la blockchain s'appelle un bloc de genèse - bloquer 0.

Frais de transaction

Rappelez-vous, nous avons parlé plus tôt de frais de transaction. Lorsque je veux payer des bitcoins à Bob, je crée une transaction et l'envoie au réseau. Il se termine dans mempool (pool de mémoire). Un mineur le récupère plus tard et le place à l'intérieur du bloc qu'elle crée. Ce faisant, un mineur se penche sur les transactions dans mempool qui lui offrent de meilleurs frais. Après tout, il existe de nombreuses transactions parmi lesquelles choisir. Alors pourquoi ne pas choisir ceux qui offrent les frais les plus élevés?

TEMPS DE TRAITEMENT DES TRANSACTIONS

Par conséquent, il est important de prévoir de bons frais de transaction si je souhaite que ma transaction soit confirmée / complétée rapidement.

Même si je paie de bons frais, nous savons qu'il faut entrer dans un bloc et la création d'un bloc prend des minutes 10. Mais dans ce cas, la pratique habituelle du réseau consiste à attendre que 6 ajoute des blocs après lui, afin qu’il soit suffisamment distant. enterré à l'intérieur assez bonne histoire.

So 1 heure devrait être une bonne estimation du temps de traitement de la transaction, si je paie de bons frais de transaction. Si je ne paye aucun frais, cela ne passera peut-être jamais.

N'OUBLIEZ PAS DE RECEVOIR LE CHANGEMENT

Une transaction doit avoir des valeurs d'entrée supérieures ou égales aux valeurs de sortie, comme mentionné précédemment. Sinon, la transaction n'est pas valide pour une raison évidente. J'ai également mentionné que je devais écrire ma propre adresse comme sortie pour que le changement me revienne. Que se passe-t-il si j'oublie de le faire et que le changement est très élevé? Eh bien, le changement (petit ou grand) se retrouvera avec le mineur! Mais comment cela arriverait-il?

COINBASE OU TRANSACTION GÉNÉRATIONNELLE

Eh bien, à ce jour, nous avons vu qu'un mineur ajoute des transactions à l'intérieur d'un bloc, que le PoW fonctionne et que, si cela réussit, il transmet le bloc au réseau pour qu'il soit accepté. Si les nœuds majoritaires acceptent, il est ajouté dans la blockchain. Nous avons également vu que chaque fois qu'un bloc de ce type est ajouté à la blockchain, le mineur obtient des récompenses en termes de bitcoins.

Nous avons également parlé des frais de transaction - lorsqu'un exploitant ajoute une transaction dans un bloc, il obtient les frais de transaction spécifiés dans cette transaction.

C'est la transaction coinbase ou générationnelle qui ajoute cette prime et les frais de transaction cumulés (pour toutes les transactions incluses dans le bloc), en tant que première transaction du bloc. L'adresse du mineur y est spécifiée comme sortie.

Par exemple, supposons qu'un mineur crée un bloc en incluant ma transaction dans un bloc. Supposons qu'aucune autre transaction n'est ajoutée dans ce bloc. Cependant, la minière ajouterait la base pièce comme première transaction, dans laquelle elle ajouterait 12.7 BTC en tant que sortie pour elle-même. 12.5 BTC est l’attribution d’un bloc dans la blockchain et 0.2 BTC est le montant des frais de transaction pour l’ajout de ma transaction.

NOUVEAU BITCOINS MINED

Mon 0.2 BTC provient d'une ancienne source d'approvisionnement que le mineur obtient. Mais le 12.5 BTC constitue une nouvelle offre de pièces pour le système. C'est ainsi que les nouveaux bitcoins sont extraits. Dans le cas où vous ne suivez pas la valeur bitcoin, au moment où j'écris ceci, 12.5 BTC équivaut à presque $ 100K.

L'avenir de l'incitation pour les mineurs

Cependant, la récompense n’était pas toujours 12.5 BTC. Et ce ne sera pas pareil à l'avenir. Lorsque Bitcoin a commencé dans 2009, le mineur obtiendrait 50 BTC pour l'ajout d'un bloc. À quelques minutes 10 par bloc, il a fallu des années à 4 pour créer des blocs 210,000, générant 10 million + BTC. Chaque année 4, la récompense par bloc est divisée par deux, de sorte que chaque génération de bitcoins par 4 années est également divisée par deux. Et c’est ainsi qu’en 2140, on s’attendait à ce que tous les millions de 21 + BTC soient générés.

Bien avant cela, les récompenses seront considérablement réduites pour l’ajout d’un nouveau bloc dans la blockchain. On s’attend à ce que beaucoup de gens (environ 5 millions 2017) posséderait alors des bitcoins et le volume des transactions augmenterait également. Et les frais liés à ce nombre élevé de transactions seraient suffisants pour que les mineurs continuent à gérer le registre des blocs de bitcoins.

Les pièces peuvent être perdues pour toujours

En ce qui concerne les frais de transaction, que se passe-t-il si le mineur oublie de les collecter, ce qui veut dire que s’il oublie de les ajouter à la transaction de pièce de monnaie, où elle s’octroie Eh bien, les pièces seront perdues pour toujours. Et c'est déjà arrivé plusieurs fois.

N'oubliez pas que les transactions en entrée sont toutes dépensées lorsque la nouvelle transaction est acceptée, ce qui signifie qu'elles ont toutes disparu. De nouvelles transactions en sortie doivent être créées pour correspondre à la valeur en entrée. Sinon, et cela peut arriver lorsque le mineur ne perçoit pas la différence sous forme de frais, la différence est perdue à jamais.

Incitation à être honnête

Comme nous avons vu comment fonctionne la blockchain, nous constatons que pour renverser le système ou le frauder, il faut beaucoup de puissance de calcul. Je veux dire, l'attaquant n'a aucun moyen de modifier l'histoire qui lui prendrait des années. Tout ce qu’elle peut faire est de créer un bloc incorrect / invalide et d’avoir de nombreux nœuds dans le système. Et demandez à ces nœuds de voter pour son mauvais bloc afin qu'il soit ajouté à la blockchain.

La question qui se pose est la suivante: si une personne peut créer un bloc très rapidement et peut ensuite obtenir de nombreux nœuds pour voter en sa faveur, pourquoi ne créerait-elle pas un bon bloc et gagnerait-elle des récompenses? L’attaquant aurait intérêt à être un mineur honnête et serait récompensé dans le système. Cette incitation économique est intégrée au protocole Bitcoin.

En bref, vous avez besoin de beaucoup de puissance de calcul pour être un méchant. Mais si vous avez effectivement beaucoup de puissance de calcul, vous pouvez également devenir un bon gars et tirer profit des avantages du système.

Vous êtes juste un nombre et pourtant très sécurisé

À ce stade, nous avons une image plus précise du système de paiement Bitcoin et nous réalisons que je possède un bitcoin qui n’est rien de plus qu’un nombre (ma clé privée qui en contrôle les dépenses) en est le propriétaire. Je ne suis rien. Si quelqu'un connaît le nombre, elle peut continuer et dépenser cette pièce.

En ce moment, vous pourriez vous demander pourquoi ne pas essayer de deviner la clé privée? Après tout, toutes les clés publiques, qui doivent tous les bitcoins, sont déjà connues. Tout ce que nous avons à faire est de prendre une clé publique et d'essayer de trouver la clé privée correspondante. Si nous pouvons le faire, la pièce associée nous appartient.

Mais c’est là que la cryptographie entre en jeu. Comme déjà mentionné, Bitcoin utilise

Quelle est la meilleure solution de paiement disponible sur une plateforme de financement participatif en Europe?

Olga Okhrimenko

Olga Okhrimenko, Responsable marketing chez JustCoded (2017-present)

Répondu il y a 35w

I realise this is an old thread, and not many people still follow it, but the question is still hot.

We build crowdfunding platforms for our UK customers, and the most widespread payment providers we integrate are MangoPay, Stripe, GoCardless, GCEN, Sagepay.

GCEN is pretty old, and it may be a tricky task to find API documentation for it (but if you need it – I have it �� ).

In our opinion, MangoPay and Stripe are the most optimal payment gateways.

Quelle est la meilleure solution de paiement disponible sur une plateforme de financement participatif en Europe?

MangoPay is tailored specifically for crowdfunding needs and has lots of features that a crowdfunding process requires:

  • Real-time anti-fraud verification
  • KYC and AML checks according to the European regulations
  • Smooth creation of e-wallets
  • Automated fee collection and refunds

If you’re interested in a more detailed review, here’s an article about top 5 payment solutions for crowdfunding platforms.

Chris Chen

Chris Chen, Pom-pom girl de financement participatif WePay

Mise à jour il y a 315w

Du point de vue d'un initié WePay, voici quelques points:

1. Our approval process for crowd funding companies (donations, rewards and equity) is typically 24 hours or less. Get started quickly.

2. We work with a lot of crowd funding/donations companies and understand the needs of the market. Split payments (fees), delayed payments and conditional payments available.

3. Notre processus de création de compte (OAuth 2.0) est extrêmement simple. Vos collecteurs de fonds peuvent commencer à collecter de l'argent en quelques secondes seulement. Nos clients adorent ça.

4. Nous minimisons notre interaction avec vos collecteurs de fonds et vos donateurs. Les donateurs peuvent passer à la caisse sans redirection et sans compte WePay.

5. Nous fournissons à votre plateforme, aux collecteurs de fonds et aux donateurs un support client réactif

Documentation sur www.wepay.com/developer

Adhir Ravipati

Adhir Ravipati

Répondu il y a 315w

BancBox fait probablement tout ce dont vous avez besoin. Nos API vous permettent de collecter, stocker et envoyer des fonds, tout ce dont vous auriez besoin pour une application de financement participatif.

1. Collecte fonds utilisant une carte de crédit, ACH ou virement bancaire (même les dépôts directs sont pris en charge)

2. Boutique fonds dans des comptes assurés individuellement par la FDIC que votre application crée à la volée

3. Envoyer fonds au propriétaire du projet de financement participatif par chèque, ACH, PayPal ou même par virement bancaire

Vous avez le contrôle sur la manière dont les fonds sont réglés, comment ils sont stockés et quand / comment ils sont déboursés.

BancBox supports both SOAP and Rest integrations. You can check us out atwww.bancbox.com

Kyle Tummonds

Kyle Tummonds, Défenseur des médias sociaux chez Thrinacia Inc

Répondu il y a 53w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 429 et de vues de réponses 44.8k

If you are either looking to start your own Crowdfunding platform, or create a campaign on an existing platform, Thrinacia provides products for both and use Stripe as the payment processor. You can see the different currencies that are accepted when using stripe here: Monnaies prises en charge

Moshe David Tokayer

Moshe David Tokayer, CEO of JCrowd - Crowdfunding for Jewish and Israeli initiatives and startups

Répondu il y a 370w

An application running in seamless mode will appear as if it is part of the parent application that called it. A seamless payment solution means that the payment processing application appears to be running within the parent application. If this is a crowdfunding platform, when a project supporter makes a payment, it appears to her that she made that payment within the platform even if in reality outside apps were called.

At JCrowd we use Paypal which runs in seamless mode. Even though the user is asked to sign in to her Paypal account, it is not at all apparent that control has been actually transferred to Paypal.

Johannes Gees

Johannes Gees, Artist, Curator, Media Producer.

Répondu il y a 315w

I admit that when I asked "What is a seamless payment solution for a crowdfunding platform" a few months ago, I was mostly concerned with the user experience while checking out and the preapproved payments. Meanwhile, after running a (successful) crowdfunding platform based in Switzerland, I see there is a lot more to it. We are looking at the storage, payout and refund processes with the same care as to the checkout, and we would consider ourselves to be happy to collaborate with services like wepay, balanced, stripe or bancbox - were the available in Europe and offering multicurrency/multilingual services....

Russ Wallace

Russ Wallace, Business Development Lead at MindMeld

Répondu il y a 367w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 58 et de vues de réponses 80.5k

We've looked at both PayPal and Amazon Payments. Amazon Payments unfortunately considers crowdfunding a "gated" business model, so they ask a lot of questions about your business that are intrusive, but I like how they allow you to adopt an "all-or-nothing" funding approach where donors aren't charged unless the target amount is raised (this is what Kickstarter does but IndieGoGo does not).