Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

Daisy Young

Daisy Young, ancien utilisateur

Répondu il y a 1w

Un nombre croissant de legitimate homework writing service ads some work to reviewers who try their best to reveal all pros and cons of a particular company. My mission is to make it easy for you to choose the best writing services for a reasonable price to meet your expectations. 99papers et EssayBox maybe the two you are looking for.

Although with some slight pitfalls and misses, a good writing companies features decent support and writers’ team. 99papers et EssayBox offers quality papers on any topic (as 1essay for US or EssayFactory for UK students).

Aussi, vous pouvez utiliser MyAdmissionsEssay or PaperHelper.

For some individuals, writing quality essays could be the most daunting task ever and there would come a point in their career where they would get stuck with a paper too difficult to write on their own. That is when they can use essay-writing services offered by so many companies but you need to know if you are hiring the right people.

Every writing service claims to be the best. They would do whatever it takes to convince the customers about their superior services. I have good and bad experiences with different companies and here is what I realized one should be looking for.

  1. EssayBox

In order to succeed in a highly compatible market company should have excellent distinguishing features as loads of academic writing services could be easily found online. Every decent writing service offers professional assistance in writing essays, case studies, and term or research papers but how to choose the most trustworthy one?

Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

Website’s design and navigation options

Easy to cope with navigation system and appealing to customer’s design are making it so pleasant to surf through. Simple design leaves great impression as all needed information is right in front of you so one doesn’t have to waste time looking for a necessary data or wandering through sophisticated menu. All essential information regarding the company itself is given on the front page along with price calculator. Apart from that all benefit, guarantees, special offers and random customers reviews are also displayed on a front page along with contact information.

Well organized and user friendly website has a great color set used as they are not distracting but even making the whole process of making an order more enjoyable. Section with FAQ’s is easy to find and quite useful as any visitor is able to find there all answers he is curious about. Furthermore – to assist guests in their search a live support window pops up on the front page as soon one visits the website.

Pricing and discounts - Cheap Essay Service!

EssayBox writing service is proud by the quality of performed papers, moreover the company has affordable pricing system that makes the service available for every student. The total value of a written assignment depends on set deadline, required academic level and pages amount.

Loyal clients have special treatment and receive various discounts. Depending on an amount of pages ordered customer receives a corresponding discount – 4% for over 15 pages, 8% if the total amount of pages is over 50 and if order has more than 100 pages, discount is 15%. This kind of promotion is called life-time discounts. With this system, paying for essay writing is easy and efficient.

Company’s guarantees and free options

Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

EssayBox writing service offers some appealing free features as:

  • Free title page;
  • Free inquiry;
  • Free outline;
  • Free bibliography;
  • Unlimited number of revisions.

Apart from these attractive benefits company guarantees following:

  • 100% original paper written from the scratch;
  • Confidentiality; no one will get personal information or other sensible data;
  • Money back feature;
  • 24/7 customer support service;
  • Top-notch formatting.

Another type of bonuses is one –time discounts. Special reduction codes are offered: 10% for 20-50 pages’ order; 10% for every 15 pages ordered within 1 month and 15% for a paper over 50 pages.

Modalité de paiement

Every payment is being made online right after client placed an order and as soon as an author has been assigned to his written assignment. Payments are possible via PayPal – the most reputable fast and safe online payment service wire bank transfer or credit card. Every transaction is carefully monitored and protected as well as clients’ personal and financial data.


Writing company gathered experienced and skilled writers who know their job. Majority of authors are native English speakers who came from Canada, UK, US or Western Europe. While placing a request customer is able to choose a writer to handle written assignment regarding his field of expertise, experience or referrals.

Academic writers employed by this content provider create unique, plagiarism free papers and have an individual approach to every client. Their experience ensures that all written assignments won’t contain any mistakes – spelling, usage, grammar or punctuation. Moreover after being written the paper is double checked by an editor for any missed typos or other errors.

Authors are highly experienced in various academic domains as:

  • Comptabilité;
  • Science politique;
  • Histoire;
  • Chemistry;
  • Business;
  • Sociology;
  • Medicine;
  • Psychology;
  • Literature;
  • Law;
  • Statistics;
  • Linguistics;
  • Finance and Banking, etc

EssayBox writing service gives a chance for contacting your author directly from the website in order to clarify necessary details of an order.

Order placement procedure

It is an easy procedure to place a request in this reputable writing service. One just has to fill in an order form directly on the front page of the website answering following questions:

  1. Indicate the service type: Essay, Research paper, Term paper, Case study, etc.
  2. Choose required academic level: High school, college, Master’s or PhD.
  3. Set the deadline, pages amount; choose the discipline as well as formatting style that can be APA, MLA, Chicago or Harvard.
  4. It is also important to fill in personal data like name, email, country along with phone number.

At the bottom of the page you will see the total paper’s value.

Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

Customer support and money back feature

Essay box is proud of its highly professional customer support team. Any client who has any questions regarding the process of his order or other relevant inquiries may contact customer support office via toll free phone or fax, live chat from the website and email alternatively. All support agents are friendly, skilled, well trained as well as available 24/7.

All customers’ rights are protected as the writing service’s team values and respects every one of them greatly. In case of violation or if a client has justified reasons to be dissatisfied with provided services without any questions he will get 100 % of his money back.

EssayBox writing service is your premium custom essay service! You can economically outsource your problem paper to a professional academic writer and researcher who will:

1. Perfectly mimic your writing ‘voice’ if you wish.

2. Customize your premium-quality essay exactly according to your specific instructions.

3. Provide absolutely free revisions.

4. Deliver your paper before the deadline to leave plenty of time for those revisions.

5. Include a free bibliography and title page per your request.

Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

With Essay Writing Service you will receive an experienced, trustworthy, and reliable partner for all your essay-writing and researching needs, be they for class or work! Their staff of multi-talented professional writers is at your service around the clock and across the calendar, all holidays included.

Avec EssayBox writing service - premium custom essay service - you receive a trustworthy and reliable partner in all your paper writing tasks! They are at your service around the clock.

Essay Writing Service is an academic writing agency that is designed to help you out with your academic tasks. They provide help with the following assignments: college and high school essays, research and term papers, thesis proposals and capstone projects, book and movie reviews, article critiques and academic tutorials, speech and presentation assistance, CVs, cover letters, resumes and other career application assistance, lab reports, scientific studies, etc. Anything you can think of, we can do it. Their goal is to provide you top quality writing help to improve your overall results at school or university.

Aussi, vous pouvez utiliser Bookwormlab service. Bookwormlab was created to serve as a real helping hand in the chaotic pace of the contemporary educational system. From the moment you start working with their custom writing service, you can forget about hidden charges, missed deadlines and money losses. They are perfectly aware of what you expect from a decent custom writing service and this is exactly what they strive for. As their client you will receive an unparalleled opportunity to enjoy high quality and helpful support.


EssayBox writing service is aware of students’ needs as realizes that the majority of young people are preoccupied with starting a career or maintaining personal issues and very often so scares of time that written assignments are totally left behind. Qualified authors will do their best to meet your tutors’ demands in order to satisfy all clients’ needs and ensure his high grades along with academic success.

2. Paperhelp

This web service happened to be very useful although I've never trusted such services. My friends started to use several different essay writing websites when we were seniors and they became 'addicts'.

I didn't want to follow their path so I kept writing all the papers myself. But recently I started working and I have no time for papers, so I gave up and usedPaperhelp. I am not proud of it but to be honest I am more than satisfied. So I would say, it's a good team and you can rely on them.

Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

PaperHelp’s website can be an example for many other writing services: sleek design, logical distribution of information, minimum of excessive text, handy price calculator, detailed FAQ – it is obvious that its developers took into account a lot of mistakes common for writing services and did their best to avoid them.

PaperHelp offers prices that are sure to appeal to any kind of visitor, no matter how much they are going to spend on an assignment. Writing from scratch costs anything from $10 a page to $102 a page, depending on academic level, urgency, assignment type and some other factors. Other kinds of assignments cost differently, and their prices can be easily estimated via the website’s price calculator.

A really praiseworthy trait of PaperHelp is the fact that they provide a lot of ways to communicate with customer support – every client is sure to find a variant best suited for his or her situation. The way support functions, however, is less perfect – there are delays, operators give vague answers and so on.

Every text I ordered from PaperHelp so far has been delivered well before the deadline. What is more important, they didn’t look as if they were rushed: with the exception of a few misspellings I couldn’t find any fault with any of them. They always use the necessary number of sources, the formatting is correct – nothing to complain about.

Order peculiarities:

Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

·Customers from European Union have to pay VAT in addition to basic price;

·You can indicate your preference concerning the choice of writer: any writer, one of your previous ones or a top writer (+23% to total price);

·For additional $14.99 you can order special treatment, which means that your order will be first priority for the service;

·For additional payment you may receive plagiarism report from Expert Editing(the larger the text, the less is price per page);

·For additional $14.99 you can get an abstract page of your work;

·Life-time discounts: 5% after the first order, 10% after the tenth, 15% after the 25th;

·One-time discounts: 5% for orders higher than $500, 10% for orders higher than $1000;

·You can make a free inquiry whether the service has a suitable writer for your task;

·Conditional refunds – full information on this subject can be found in “Money Back Guarantee” section;

·Up to 3 revisions within 7 (14 in case of larger orders) days after completion.

PaperHelp is a service you want to come back for – if it wasn’t for lacklustre performance of the support team, it would have been one of the best ones out there.

3. My Admission Essay

This service is in our top list because of several reasons. Here we are going to present its good features to you, one by one, because we couldn’t find the bad ones. These guys respect the significance of the deadlines, have reliable team and really professional writers. So, we will start with the attribute which deserves to be mentioned firstly.

Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

The greatest take from MyAdmissionsEssay is their support team. If there was a better word than “great” we would use it to describe them. There are special guys in the support team and their boss should take that into account next time he thinks of handing out a bonus. Our issue with most service providers especially when they start serving a large clientele is the deteriorating of support for their product or services. But this is different from with MyAdmissionsEssay, they have a friendly support team both for offline and online engagements.

The responsiveness was definitely perfect. We prepared the questions that were pertinent to the cause we were about to undertake. We all know that research papers play a critical role in the entire course in college. You do not want a scenario whereby you ordered a paper and it’s not original or worse still, it is marred with grammatical errors.

When we presented the questions to the support team through their listed phone numbers, they responded to them clearly. For instance, when we asked them about the pricing policy they responded at once in a timely fashion. They explained each of the pricing policy with clear examples. Secondly, we had asked them about how they react to any changes in an order made which to my surprise was a positive response. But the best thing about the support team at particular essay writing service is that they respond to questions instantly and in a friendly manner. On one instance, the research paper we had ordered had a few issues that needed to be changed. Furthermore, that meant rewriting a few paragraphs. However, when we contacted the support team they were open to the idea and agreed to make the changes free of charge.

Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

For the short time we’ve been working together with the essay writing service we have had very little if any complaints. MyAdmissionsEssay have a very professional and quite helpful support service that is ready and willing to help clients anytime. In fact, they have a 24/7 support both online and offline. The bottom line is that MyAdmissionsEssay support team knows how to treat their customers even when it seems like they are demanding too much. When our work was revised for free we were convinced that this service is a reliable one. That’s why we suggest you to use their help with essay writing.

If we’re talking about really qualified essay writing services, it comes to competetive prices. Many clients prefer to complain about allegedly high prices, but you should always remember that no one will write you a good grounded, unplagiarized and qualified research paper for a song. Professional writers should be paid good. So, as this review is about MyAdmissionEssay company we have to say that the prices can’t be called small. The best word for them would be ‘adequate’. If you want your essay to be neat and bring you highest grade, you will accept them.

Cheap turns out to be expensive if one is not careful. And if so did anyone think research papers could be for sell. Now that it is possible, buy research papers cheap is the best alternative. College students are the people who never think twice if they spot a bad essay writing service. They will quickly go ahead to make an order without finding out how cheap the services are. What we are saying is that not all services that claim to be cheap really are. Most of the students who have used this kind of help have ended up in complete mystery.

When seeking an affordable research paper writing service, you have to be cautious. You do not want to be cheated that a service is cheap while in the real sense its not. The first thing to look out for with low-priced custom research papers is their quality. Read through their samples and evaluate their quality. There are pretty-good essays which quality is never compromised and others you won’t like to read twice. Such are the research papers you will end up spending on.

Reliability also comes with a little cost. Not all half-priced essay writing services you approach are 100% reliable. The writers could promise you heaven but when delivering its nothing closer to the heaven they mentioned. You will probably get an incomplete research paper, delivered past the deadline or simply the writer is not one to depend on for better results. We discourage students from approaching such a service no matter how cheap it is. Otherwise, they should prepare to face endless frustrations.

Research involves a lot of work and time. Students ordering research papers from a cheap service need to be careful. There are writers who will do a good research on a term paper and develop original ideas. Such are writers who value customer satisfaction thus find it important to work with reliable sources for research paper. Do not agree to buy a paper based on sketchy research ideas. These labeled writers are only after customer’s money and not to produce a paper with value.

Being a reliable websites for research papers, we urge students to think before placing an order. Seeing cheap figures when you are so broke should not lead you into double trouble. It’s best to take time and consider an affordable research paper writing company. Find out what different feature does a cheap and affordable company has. One thing for sure is that you will discover the value of your paper and money. They will consistently present you with the best papers and original ideas.

Reviews from customers can help you to find the best writing service. Customers who had a good experience with a cheap research paper company will not hesitate to recommend it to a friend. By simply going through our reviews, you will note how happy our customers were courtesy of our good products. Are you looking for reliable websites to buy cheap research papers? You’re at the right place! Check out our reviews to find the most affordable.

  1. 99papers

Quel est le meilleur service de rédaction de devoirs sur Reddit?

Écrire un test est une tâche difficile. Vous devez entreprendre une étude sur le sujet, parcourir toute la littérature académique possible sur le thème et rédiger une conclusion. Les étudiants qui manquent de calligraphie, d’approche scientifique et de temps 99papers est la meilleure solution pour les problèmes académiques.

Présentation de la société

The company has been working for 6 years, and they have thousands of completed papers. They employ only well qualified writers who specialize in more than 300 subject areas. 99papers reviews are quite controversial, so we decided to make and order and evaluate 99 papers from our point of view.

La qualité du site

Le service de rédaction personnalisé propose de nombreux produits d'écriture:

  • Essai
  • Document de recherche
  • Présentation Power Point
  • Papier à terme
  • Dissertation
  • Thèse
  • Analyse SWOT
  • Écriture de la subvention
  • Plan de marketing
  • Rapport de laboratoire
  • contour
  • Déclaration personelle
  • Réponse du modèle de doctorat
  • Poème
  • Questionnaire
  • Papier de réaction
  • Rédaction SEO
  • contenu web
  • Livre blanc et un peu plus.

Beside writing these papers, 99papers supplies editing and proofreading services. We ordered an essay in Economics.. The topic was covered at length with proper citing and referencing. The theme was backed up by numerous quotes and scientific research. In a whole, the quality of the work was satisfactory with all details and requirements met.

Si vous voulez connaître la qualité des essais, vous pouvez lire leurs exemples disponibles sur le site. Ils ont été spécialement écrits par leurs écrivains à des fins de familiarisation. Ils écrivent des articles académiques pour tous les niveaux académiques: lycée, premier cycle, maîtrise et doctorat.

99 papers prices and discounts

Les prix sont assez compétitifs et abordables dans le créneau de rédaction d’essais. Le prix minimum pour l'urgence maximale commence à partir de 9 $ par page. Le prix le plus élevé est de 52 $ pour un doctorat d’urgence de trois heures.

Ils ont un prix standard pour les rédacteurs, la garantie du meilleur rédacteur avec les commentaires les plus positifs et le grand expert de votre discipline pour un supplément de 7.99 $ par page et une garantie pour le rédacteur ENL, un rédacteur qualifié qui peut être affecté à votre commande pour une valeur de 8.99 $ par page. En tant que nouveau client, le meilleur écrivain nous a été fourni gratuitement.

They apply 7.5% discount automatically on your order or you can ask for 99papers coupon through the chat. Be always open for communication and never feel shy to ask for some discount. Yet, we were told that unfortunately the 7.5% discount was the max. The company does not provide any additional services as plagiarism report and assignment guidance. So in conclusion it can be described as the cheap essay writing service.


Le site Web garantit que tous les papiers sont d'une qualité irréprochable et sont écrits à partir de rien. Ils vérifient chaque papier pour le plagiat avant de le soumettre à leurs clients afin de s'assurer de l'originalité du travail de nos écrivains. Chaque papier est vérifié pour son unicité à l’aide d’un logiciel de détection du plagiat spécialement conçu à cet effet. Le client doit donc être sûr que le papier est 100% unique.

Si un client n'est pas satisfait de la qualité du papier, il peut demander une révision illimitée dans les dix jours suivant l'approbation de l'essai. Le papier sera poli jusqu'à ce qu'il satisfasse le client.

99papers offre une garantie de remboursement avec remboursement complet et partiel. Pour plus d'informations, vous pouvez vous référer à la section remboursement.

Le site Web demande des informations personnelles telles que l'adresse e-mail, le nom et le numéro de téléphone. Ils assurent qu'aucune donnée personnelle ne sera divulguée à des tiers. Le paiement est effectué via le système de paiement PayPal ou par carte de crédit et les informations de paiement ne sont pas stockées à des fins de sécurité.

99papers reviews and online reputation

Le site Web est assez fiable et le site Web suscite beaucoup de commentaires positifs. Sur Sitejabber, certains utilisateurs font l'éloge du service de site, tandis que d'autres affirment que la société ne prouve pas la qualité des essais promis. L’examen du site Youtube ne fournit pas une attitude objective à l’égard du site et informe principalement des services fournis par la société. Les autres commentaires n'ayant pas de date, nous ne pouvons pas en savoir plus sur le sujet. En outre, le site ne comporte pas de section de témoignage permettant aux utilisateurs de lire leurs commentaires.

Dates limites

Le service de rédaction d’essais fournit l’urgence 15 + jours et l’urgence minimale 3 heures. Nous avons commandé un essai de page 3 pour l’urgence des heures 6. Le document a été soumis avec une demi-heure de retard. Nous avons demandé un remboursement et le responsable des litiges a satisfait à notre demande. Le papier a été écrit assez bien et n'a pas besoin de révision. 99% des commandes sont terminées à temps ou avant la date limite, les cas comme le nôtre sont rares et les rédacteurs seront pénalisés.

99papers support

Vous pouvez demander de l'aide par téléphone gratuit, chat en direct ou par courrier électronique. Il n’ya pas de file d’attente dans le chat en direct et les représentants de l’assistance s’engagent immédiatement après avoir posé la question. L'équipe de support est toujours prête à aider les clients avec toutes les questions, même absurdes, et à répondre à toutes vos demandes. De plus, vous pouvez communiquer directement avec votre auteur et envoyer des amendements et les détails de votre essai. Les représentants de l'assistance sont toujours polis et l'attente d'un temps de réponse n'excède pas cinq minutes.

Facilité d'utilisation du site

The website is user-friendly with all relevant sections on the top of the page. The navigation is quite simple, you have to do three simple steps to make an order. The order button is designed in orange and is easily visible. The guarantees and policies sections are situated on the bottom of the page, however, the terms and condition

Who are the Lehman Brothers?

Abhijit Hazra

Abhijit Hazra, Pigiste (1990-present)

Répondu il y a 43w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 436 et de vues de réponses 417.4k

Réponse d'origine: What is Lehman Brothers?


(1850-1969) - In 1844, 23-year-old Henry Lehman, the son of a Jewish cattle merchant, immigrated to the United States from Rimpar, Bavaria.He settled in Montgomery, Alabama, where he opened a dry-goods store, "H. Lehman". In 1847, following the arrival of his brother Emanuel Lehman, the firm became "H. Lehman and Bro." With the arrival of their youngest brother, Mayer Lehman, in 1850, the firm changed its name again and "Lehman Brothers" was founded.

During the 1850s, cotton was one of the most important crops in the United States. Capitalizing on cotton's high market value, the three brothers began to routinely accept raw cotton from customers as payment for merchandise, eventually beginning a second business trading in cotton. Within a few years this business grew to become the most significant part of their operation. Following Henry's death from yellow fever in 1855, the remaining brothers continued to focus on their commodities-trading/brokerage operations.

The Lehmans were also involved in the Atlantic slave trade in the 1850s.

By 1858, the center of cotton trading had shifted from the South to New York City, where factors and commission houses were based. Lehman opened its first branch office at 119 Liberty Street and 32-year-old Emanuel relocated there to run the office. In 1862, facing difficulties as a result of the Civil War, the firm teamed up with a cotton merchant named John Durr to form Lehman, Durr & Co Following the war the company helped finance Alabama's reconstruction. The firm's headquarters were eventually moved to New York City, where it helped found the New York Cotton Exchange in 1870; Emanuel sat on the board of governors until 1884. The firm also dealt in the emerging market for railroad bonds and entered the financial-advisory business.

Lehman became a member of the Coffee Exchange as early as 1883 and finally the New York Stock Exchange in 87. In 1899, it underwrote its first public offering, the preferred and common stock of the International Steam Pump Company.

Despite the offering of International Steam, the firm's real shift from being a commodities house to a house of issue did not begin until 1906. In that year, under Emanuel's son Philip Lehman, the firm partnered with Goldman, Sachs & Co., to bring the General Cigar Co. to market, followed closely by Sears, Roebuck and Company. During the following two decades, almost one hundred new issues were underwritten by Lehman, many times in conjunction with Goldman, Sachs. Among these were F.W. Woolworth Company, May Department Stores Company, Gimbel Brothers, Inc., R.H. Macy & Company, The Studebaker Corporation, the B.F. Goodrich Co. and Endicott Johnson Corporation.

Following Philip Lehman's retirement in 1925, his son Robert "Bobbie" Lehman took over as head of the firm. During Bobbie's tenure, the company weathered the capital crisis of the Great Depression by focusing on venture capital while the equities market recovered.

Traditionally a family-only partnership, in 1924, John M. Hancock became the first non-family member to join the firm, followed by Monroe C. Gutman and Paul Mazur in 1927. By 1928, the firm moved to its now famous One William Street location.

In the 1930s, Lehman underwrote the initial public offering of the first television manufacturer, DuMont, and helped fund the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). It also helped finance the rapidly growing oil industry, including the companies Halliburton and Kerr-McGee. In the 1950s, Lehman underwrote the IPO of Digital Equipment Corporation. Later, it arranged the acquisition of Digital by Compaq.

(1969-1984) - Robert Lehman died in 1969 after 44 years as the patriarch of the firm, leaving no member of the Lehman family actively involved with the partnership. Robert's death, coupled with a lack of a clear successor from within the Lehman family left a void in the company. At the same time, Lehman was facing strong headwinds amidst the difficult economic environment of the early 1970s. By 1972, the firm was facing hard times and in 1973, Pete Peterson, chairman and chief executive officer of the Bell & Howell Corporation, was brought in to save the firm.

Under Peterson's leadership as chairman and CEO, the firm acquired Abraham & Co. in 1975, and two years later merged with the venerable, but struggling, Kuhn, Loeb & Co., to form Lehman Brothers, Kuhn, Loeb Inc., the country's fourth-largest investment bank, behind Salomon Brothers, Goldman Sachs and First Boston. Peterson led the firm from significant operating losses to five consecutive years of record profits with a return on equity among the highest in the investment-banking industry.

By the early 1980s, hostilities between the firm's investment bankers and traders (who were driving most of the firm's profits) prompted Peterson to promote Lewis Glucksman, the firm's President, COO and former trader, to be his co-CEO in May 1983. Glucksman introduced a number of changes that had the effect of increasing tensions, which when coupled with Glucksman’s management style and a downturn in the markets, resulted in a power struggle that ousted Peterson and left Glucksman as the sole CEO.

Upset bankers who had soured over the power struggle, left the company. Stephen A. Schwarzman, chairman of the firm's M&A committee, recalled in a February 2003 interview with Private Equity International that "Lehman Brothers had an extremely competitive internal environment, which ultimately became dysfunctional." The company suffered under the disintegration, and Glucksman was pressured into selling the firm.

Merger with American Express (1984–1994) - Shearson/American Express, an American Express-owned securities company focused on brokerage rather than investment banking, acquired Lehman in 1984, for $360 million. On May 11, the combined firms became Shearson Lehman/American Express. In 1988, Shearson Lehman/American Express and E.F. Hutton & Co. merged as Shearson Lehman Hutton Inc.

From 1983 to 1990, Peter A. Cohen was CEO and chairman of Shearson Lehman Brothers, where he led the one billion dollar purchase of E.F. Hutton to form Shearson Lehman Hutton. During this period, Shearson Lehman was aggressive in building its leveraged finance business in the model of rival Drexel Burnham Lambert. In 1989, Shearson backed F. Ross Johnson's management team in its attempted management buyout of RJR Nabisco but were ultimately outbid by private equity firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, who was backed by Drexel.

Divestment and independence (1994–2008) - In 1993, under newly appointed CEO, Harvey Golub, American Express began to divest itself of its banking and brokerage operations. It sold its retail brokerage and asset management operations to Primerica and in 1994 it spun off Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb in an initial public offering, as Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc.

Despite rumors that it would be acquired again, Lehman performed quite well under chairman and CEO Richard S. Fuld, Jr.. By 2008, Fuld had been with the company for 30 years, and would be the longest-tenured CEO on Wall Street. Fuld had steered Lehman through the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, a period where the firm's share price dropped to $22 USD in 1998, but he was said to have underestimated the downturn in the US housing market and its effect on Lehman's mortgage bond underwriting business. Fuld kept his job as the subprime mortgage crisis took hold, while CEOs of rivals like Bear Stearns, Merrill Lynch, and Citigroup were forced to resign. In addition, Lehman's board of directors, which included retired CEOs like Vodafone's Christopher Gent and IBM's John Akers were reluctant to challenge Fuld as the firm's share price spiraled lower.

Fuld had a succession of "number twos" under him, usually titled as president and chief operating officer. Chris Pettit was Fuld's second-in-command for two decades until November 26, 1996, when he resigned as president and board member. Pettit lost a power struggle with his deputies (Steve Lessing, Tom Tucker, and Joseph M. Gregory) back on March 15 that year that caused him to relinquish its COO title, likely brought about after the three men found out about Pettit's extramarital affairs, which violated Fuld's unwritten rules on marriage and social etiquette. Bradley Jack and Joseph M. Gregory were appointed co-COOs in 2002, but Jack was demoted to the office of the chairman in May 2004 and departed in June 2005 with a severance package of $80 million, making Gregory the sole COO. While Fuld was considered the "face" of Lehman brothers, Gregory was in charge of day-to-day operations and he influenced culture to drive the bottom line. Gregory was demoted on June 12, 2008 and replaced as president and COO by Bart McDade, who had been serving as head of Equities, and McDade would see Lehman through bankruptcy. McDade would later be one of a handful of Lehman executives offered a position with Barclays after their acquisition; he would step down after less than two months.

In 2001, the firm acquired the private-client services, or "PCS", business of Cowen & Co.and later, in 2003, aggressively re-entered the asset-management business, which it had exited in 1989.[45] Beginning with $2 billion in assets under management, the firm acquired the Crossroads Group, the fixed-income division of Lincoln Capital Management and Neuberger Berman. These businesses, together with the PCS business and Lehman's private-equity business, comprised the Investment Management Division, which generated approximately $3.1 billion in net revenue and almost $800 million in pretax income in 2007. Prior to going bankrupt, the firm had in excess of $275 billion in assets under management. Altogether, since going public in 1994, the firm had increased net revenues over 600% from $2.73 billion to $19.2 billion and had increased employee headcount over 230% from 8,500 to almost 28,600.

At the 2008 ALB China Law Awards, Lehman Brothers was crowned:

• Deal of the Year – Debt Market Deal of the Year

• Deal of the Year – Equity Market Deal of the Year

Response to September 11, 2001 attacks - On September 11, 2001, Lehman occupied three floors of World Trade Center where one of its employees was killed in the terrorist attacks of that day. Its global headquarters in Three World Financial Center were severely damaged and rendered unusable by falling debris, displacing over 6,500 employees. The bank recovered quickly and rebuilt its presence. Trading operations moved across the Hudson River to its Jersey City, New Jersey, facilities, where an impromptu trading floor was built in a hotel and brought online less than forty-eight hours after the attacks. When stock markets reopened on September 17, 2001, Lehman's sales and trading capabilities were restored.

In the ensuing months, the firm fanned out its operations across the New York City metropolitan area in over 40 temporary locations. The investment-banking division converted the first-floor lounges, restaurants, and all 665 guestrooms of the Sheraton Manhattan Hotel into office space.

The bank also experimented with flextime (to share office space) and telecommuting via virtual private networking. In October 2001, Lehman purchased a 32-story, 1,050,000-square-foot (98,000 m2) office building for a reported sum of $700 million. The building, located at 745 Seventh Avenue, had recently been completed, and not yet occupied, by rival Morgan Stanley.

With Morgan Stanley's world headquarters located only two blocks away at 1585 Broadway, in the wake of the attacks the firm was re-evaluating its office plans which would have put over 10,000 employees in the Times Square area of New York City. Lehman began moving into the new facility in January and finished in March 2002, a move that significantly boosted morale throughout the firm.

The firm was criticized for not moving back to its former headquarters in lower Manhattan. Following the attacks, only Deutsche Bank, Goldman Sachs, and Merrill Lynch, of the major firms, remained in the downtown area. Lehman, however, pointed to the facts that it was committed to stay in New York City, that the new headquarters represented an ideal circumstance where the firm was desperate to buy and Morgan Stanley was desperate to sell, that when the new building was purchased, the structural integrity of Three World Financial Center had not yet been given a clean bill of health, and that the company could not have waited until May 2002 for repairs to Three World Financial Center to conclude.

After the attacks, Lehman's management placed increased emphasis on business continuity planning. Unlike its rivals, the company was unusually concentrated for a bulge-bracket investment bank. For example, Morgan Stanley maintains a 750,000-square-foot (70,000 m2) trading-and-banking facility in Westchester County, New York. The trading floor of UBS is located in Stamford, Connecticut. Merrill Lynch's asset-management division is located in Plainsboro Township, New Jersey. Aside from its headquarters in Three World Financial Center, Lehman maintained operations-and-backoffice facilities in Jersey City, space that the firm considered leaving prior to 9/11. The space was not only retained, but expanded, including the construction of a backup-trading facility. In addition, telecommuting technology first rolled out in the days following the attacks to allow employees to work from home was expanded and enhanced for general use throughout the firm

June 2003 SEC litigation - In June 2003, the company was one of ten firms which simultaneously entered into a settlement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Office of the New York State Attorney General and various other securities regulators, regarding undue influence over each firm's research analysts by its investment-banking divisions. Specifically, regulators alleged that the firms had improperly associated analyst compensation with the firms' investment-banking revenues, and promised favorable, market-moving research coverage, in exchange for underwriting opportunities. The settlement, known as the "global settlement", provided for total financial penalties of $1.4 billion, including $80 million against Lehman, and structural reforms, including a complete separation of investment banking departments from research departments, no analyst compensation, directly or indirectly, from investment-banking revenues, and the provision of free, independent, third-party, research to the firms' clients.

Rise of mortgage origination (1997-2006) - Lehman was one of the first Wall Street firms to move into the business of mortgage origination. In 1997, Lehman bought Colorado-based lender, Aurora Loan Services, an Alt-A lender. In 2000, to expand their mortgage origination pipeline, Lehman purchased West Coast subprime mortgage lender BNC Mortgage LLC. Lehman quickly became a force in the subprime market. By 2003 Lehman made $18.2 billion in loans and ranked third in lending. By 2004, this number topped $40 billion. By 2006, Aurora and BNC were lending almost $50 billion per month. Lehman had morphed into a real estate hedge fund disguised as an investment bank. By 2008, Lehman had assets of $680 billion supported by only $22.5 billion of firm capital. From an equity position, its risky commercial real estate holdings were three times greater than capital. In such a highly leveraged structure, a 3 to 5 percent decline in real estate values would wipeout all capital.

Collapse - A March 2010 report by the court-appointed examiner indicated that Lehman executives regularly used cosmetic accounting gimmicks at the end of each quarter to make its finances appear less shaky than they really were. This practice was a type of repurchase agreement that temporarily removed securities from the company's balance sheet. However, unlike typical repurchase agreements, these deals were described by Lehman as the outright sale of securities and created "a materially misleading picture of the firm’s financial condition in late 2007 and 2008."

Subprime Mortgage Crisis - In August 2007 the firm closed its subprime lender, BNC Mortgage, eliminating 1,200 positions in 23 locations, and took an after-tax charge of $25 million and a $27 million reduction in goodwill. Lehman said that poor market conditions in the mortgage space "necessitated a substantial reduction in its resources and capacity in the subprime space".

In 2008, Lehman faced an unprecedented loss to the continuing subprime mortgage crisis. Lehman's loss was a result of having held on to large positions in subprime and other lower-rated mortgage tranches when securitizing the underlying mortgages; whether Lehman did this because it was simply unable to sell the lower-rated bonds, or made a conscious decision to hold them, is unclear. In any event, huge losses accrued in lower-rated mortgage-backed securities throughout 2008. In the second fiscal quarter, Lehman reported losses of $2.8 billion and was forced to sell off $6 billion in assets. In the first half of 2008 alone, Lehman stock lost 73% of its value as the credit market continued to tighten. In August 2008, Lehman reported that it intended to release 6% of its work force, 1,500 people, just ahead of its third-quarter-reporting deadline in September.

In September 2007, Joe Gregory appointed Erin Callan as CFO. On March 16, 2008, after rival Bear Stearns was taken over by JP Morgan Chase in a fire sale, market analysts suggested that Lehman would be the next major investment bank to fall. Callan fielded Lehman's first quarter conference call, where the firm posted a profit of $489 million, compared to Citigroup's $5.1 billion and Merrill Lynch's $1.97 billion losses which was Lehman’s 55th consecutive profitable quarter. The firm's stock price leapt 46 percent after that announcement.

On June 9, 2008, Lehman Brothers announced US$2.8 billion second-quarter loss, its first since being spun off from American Express, as market volatility rendered many of its hedges ineffective during that time. Lehman also reported that it had raised a further $6 billion in capital. As a result, there was major management shakeup, in which Hugh "Skip" McGee III (head of investment banking) held a meeting with senior staff to strip Fuld and his lieutenants of their authority. Consequently, Joe Gregory agreed to resign as president and COO, and afterward he told Erin Callan that she had to resign as CFO. Callan was appointed CFO of Lehman in 2008 but served only for six months, before departing after her mentor Joe Gregory was demoted. Bart McDade was named to succeed Gregory as president and COO, when several senior executives threatened to leave if he was not promoted. McDade took charge and brought back Michael Gelband and Alex Kirk, who had previously been pushed out of the firm by Gregory for not taking risks. Although Fuld remained CEO, he soon became isolated from McDade's team.

On August 22, 2008, shares in Lehman closed up 5% (16% for the week) on reports that the state-controlled Korea Development Bank was considering buying the bank. Most of those gains were quickly eroded as news came in that Korea Development Bank was "facing difficulties pleasing regulators and attracting partners for the deal." It culminated on September 9, when Lehman's shares plunged 45% to $7.79, after it was reported that the state-run South Korean firm had put talks on hold.

Investor confidence continued to erode as Lehman's stock lost roughly half its value and pushed the S&P 500 down 3.4% on September 9. The Dow Jones lost 300 points the same day on investors' concerns about the security of the bank. The U.S. government did not announce any plans to assist with any possible financial crisis that emerged at Lehman.

The next day, Lehman announced a loss of $3.9 billion and its intent to sell off a majority stake in its investment-management business, which includes Neuberger Berman. The stock slid seven percent that day. Lehman, after earlier rejecting questions on the sale of the company, was reportedly searching for a buyer as its stock price dropped another 40 percent on September 11, 2008.

Just before the collapse of Lehman Brothers, executives at Neuberger Berman sent e-mail memos suggesting, among other things, that the Lehman Brothers' top people forgo multimillion-dollar bonuses to "send a strong message to both employees and investors that management is not shirking accountability for recent performance."

Lehman Brothers Investment Management Director George Herbert Walker IV dismissed the proposal, going so far as to actually apologize to other members of the Lehman Brothers executive committee for the idea of bonus reduction having been suggested. He wrote, "Sorry team. I am not sure what's in the water at Neuberger Berman. I'm embarrassed and I apologize."

Short-selling allegations - During hearings on the bankruptcy filing by Lehman Brothers and bailout of AIG before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, former Lehman Brothers CEO Richard Fuld said a host of factors including a crisis of confidence and naked short-selling attacks followed by false rumors contributed to both the collapse of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers. House committee Chairman Henry Waxman said the committee received thousands of pages of internal documents from Lehman and these documents portray a company in which there was "no accountability for failure".

An article by journalist Matt Taibbi in Rolling Stone contended that naked short selling contributed to the demise of both Lehman and Bear Stearns. A study by finance researchers at the University of Oklahoma Price College of Business studied trading in financial stocks, including Lehman Brothers and Bear Stearns, and found "no evidence that stock price declines were caused by naked short selling".

Bankruptcy - On Saturday, September 13, 2008, Timothy F. Geithner, then the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, called a meeting on the future of Lehman, which included the possibility of an emergency liquidation of its assets. Lehman reported that it had been in talks with Bank of America and Barclays for the company's possible sale; however, both Barclays and Bank of America ultimately declined to purchase the entire company, in the former case because the British government (in particular, the Chancellor of the Exchequer Alastair Darling and the CEO of the Financial Services Authority Hector Sants) refused to allow the transaction at the last minute, quoting stockholder regulations in the UK, despite a deal having apparently been completed.

The next day, Sunday, September 14, the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) offered an exceptional trading session to allow market participants to offset positions in various derivatives on the condition of a Lehman bankruptcy later that day. Although the bankruptcy filing missed the deadline, many dealers honored the trades they made in the special session.

Shortly before 1 am Monday morning (UTC−5), Lehman Brothers Holdings announced it would file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection citing bank debt of $613 billion, $155 billion in bond debt, and assets worth $639 billion. It further announced that its subsidiaries would continue to operate as normal. A group of Wall Street firms agreed to provide capital and financial assistance for the bank's orderly liquidation and the Federal Reserve, in turn, agreed to a swap of lower-quality assets in exchange for loans and other assistance from the government. The morning witnessed scenes of Lehman employees removing files, items with the company logo, and other belongings from the world headquarters at 745 Seventh Avenue. The spectacle continued throughout the day and into the following day.

Later that day, the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) suspended Lehman's Australian subsidiary as a market participant after clearing-houses terminated contracts with the firm. Lehman shares tumbled over 90% on September 15, 2008. The Dow Jones closed down just over 500 points on September 15, 2008, which was at the time the largest drop in a single day since the days following the attacks on September 11, 2001.

In the United Kingdom, the investment bank went into administration with PricewaterhouseCoopers appointed as administrators. In Japan, the Japanese branch, Lehman Brothers Japan Inc., and its holding company filed for civil reorganization on September 16, 2008, in Tokyo District Court. On September 17, 2008, the New York Stock Exchange delisted Lehman Brothers.

On March 16, 2011 some three years after filing for bankruptcy and following a filing in a Manhattan U.S. bankruptcy court, Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc announced it would seek creditor approval of its reorganization plan by October 14 followed by a confirmation hearing to follow on November 17.


Barclays acquisition - On September 16, 2008, Barclays PLC announced that they would acquire a "stripped clean" portion of Lehman for $1.75 billion, including most of Lehman's North America operations. On September 20, 2008, a revised version of the deal, a $1.35 billion (£700 million) plan for Barclays to acquire the core business of Lehman (mainly its $960-million headquarters, a 38-story office building in Midtown Manhattan, with responsibility for 9,000 former employees), was approved. Manhattan court bankruptcy Judge James Peck, after a 7-hour hearing, ruled: "I have to approve this transaction because it is the only available transaction. Lehman Brothers became a victim, in effect the only true icon to fall in a tsunami that has befallen the credit markets. This is the most momentous bankruptcy hearing I've ever sat through. It can never be deemed precedent for future cases. It's hard for me to imagine a similar emergency."

Luc Despins, then a partner at Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, the creditors committee counsel, said: "The reason we're not objecting is really based on the lack of a viable alternative. We did not support the transaction because there had not been enough time to properly review it."[citation needed] In the amended agreement, Barclays would absorb $47.4 billion in securities and assume $45.5 billion in trading liabilities. Lehman's attorney Harvey R. Miller of Weil, Gotshal & Manges, said "the purchase price for the real estate components of the deal would be $1.29 billion, including $960 million for Lehman's New York headquarters and $330 million for two New Jersey data centers. Lehman's original estimate valued its headquarters at $1.02 billion but an appraisal from CB Richard Ellis this week valued it at $900 million." Further, Barclays will not acquire Lehman's Eagle Energy unit, but will have entities known as Lehman Brothers Canada Inc, Lehman Brothers Sudamerica, Lehman Brothers Uruguay and its Private Investment Management business for high-net-worth individuals. Finally, Lehman will retain $20 billion of securities assets in Lehman Brothers Inc that are not being transferred to Barclays. Barclays acquired a potential liability of $2.5 billion to be paid as severance, if it chooses not to retain some Lehman employees beyond the guaranteed 90 days.

Nomura acquisition - Nomura Holdings, Japan's top brokerage firm, agreed to buy the Asian division of Lehman Brothers for $225 million and parts of the European division for a nominal fee of $2. It would not take on any trading assets or liabilities in the European units. Nomura negotiated such a low price because it acquired only Lehman's employees in the regions, and not its stocks, bonds or other assets. The last Lehman Brothers Annual Report identified that these non-US subsidiaries of Lehman Brothers were responsible for over 50% of global revenue produced.

Sale of asset management businesses - On September 29, 2008, Lehman agreed to sell Neuberger Berman, part of its investment management business, to a pair of private-equity firms, Bain Capital Partners and Hellman & Friedman, for $2.15 billion. The transaction was expected to close in early 2009, subject to approval by the U.S. Bankruptcy Court, but a competing bid was entered by the firm's management, who ultimately prevailed in a bankruptcy auction on December 3, 2008. Creditors of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. retain a 49% common equity interest in the firm, now known as Neuberger Berman Group LLC. In Europe, the Quantitative Asset Management Business has been acquired back by its employees on November 13, 2008 and has been renamed back to TOBAM.

Financial fallout - Lehman's bankruptcy was the largest failure of an investment bank since Drexel Burnham Lambert collapsed amid fraud allegations 18 years prior. Immediately following the bankruptcy filing, an already distressed financial market began a period of extreme volatility, during which the Dow experienced its largest one day point loss, largest intra-day range (more than 1,000 points) and largest daily point gain. What followed was what many have called the "perfect storm" of economic distress factors and eventually a $700bn bailout package (Troubled Asset Relief Program) prepared by Henry Paulson, Secretary of the Treasury, and approved by Congress. The Dow eventually closed at a new six-year low of 7,552.29 on November 20, followed by a further drop to 6626 by March of the next year. Durvexity spiked, due to funding issues at the major investment banks.

The fall of Lehman also had a strong effect on small private investors such as bond holders and holders of so-called Minibonds. In Germany structured products, often based on an index, were sold mostly to private investors, elderly, retired persons, students and families. Most of those now worthless derivatives were sold by the German arm of Citigroup, the German Citibank now owned by Crédit Mutuel.

Ongoing litigation - On March 11, 2010, Anton R. Valukas, a court-appointed examiner, published the results of its year-long investigation into the finances of Lehman Brothers. This report revealed that Lehman Brothers used an accounting procedure termed repo 105 to temporarily exchange $50 billion of assets into cash just before publishing its financial statements. The action could be seen to implicate both Ernst & Young, the bank's accountancy firm and Richard S. Fuld, Jr, the former CEO. This could potentially lead to Ernst & Young being found guilty of financial malpractice and Fuld facing time in prison.


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Hema Kakarla

Hema Kakarlavit à Hyderabad en Inde

Répondu il y a 1w

*Opens phone for umpteenth time to check time*

Moi: Oh no it is 2:17 am, God I need to get up early tomorrow, so please tell sleep to come and hit me.

Inner me: Girl make some deal because I don’t see any symptoms of sleep as of now.

Moi: Okay, I am gonna tell my brother that I was the one who lost his pen-drive and also stop having chewing gum for 1 week.

So sleep why don’t you make your way towards me.

Dormir: I have no issues, I think its your brain who is stopping me, so better have a chat with it.

Moi: Okay, come on’ brain what is a big deal?

Brain: J'ai quelques questions.

Moi: You think it is the time for questions? Seriously? Okay, shoot!

Brain: Before starting I just want to make clear that all these are all my questions or opinions you can say, so anything hurts your heart or kidney out there, I am not responsible! *alert*

Moi: Okay, deal done (y) *inhales heavily*

Brain: Que faire si? *oxygen flow increases*

What if all this is actually happened and people from future or aliens out there are just rewinding your life and chilling with a popcorn?

or what if you are actually in a dream all these years, once you get up you are no more the same person?

or what if you are all the imaginary characters created by some person?

Me: *heartbeat increases* Sounds crazy!

Brain: I have some more.

Moi: Go-on!

Brain: Pourquoi?!

Why love? Why hate? Why religion? Why caste? Why rich? Why poor? Why money? Why humans? Why earth? Why planets? Why galaxies? Why stars? Why you? Why me?

Why are HUMANS created? Are you supposed to do the things which you are doing? Or is there any specific reason for your existence?

Why do you people have increased the status of so-called-note in your words money so damn high, which is actually ruling everything out in the world!?

Why don’t you care about the people who are dying of hunger but worries about the existence of life on other planet!?

Why do you accept blood, organs from a person irrespective of caste and religion when there is a need but can’t digest the fact when your child is in love with a person who belongs to other community?

Why are you tuned to do the routine things like., take birth, study, graduate, do job, get married, have kids and repeat the process, why does everyone bothers if any one of the above is not done?

Why do you blame society for everything, ain’t you a part of it?

Why don’t some people out there use a thing, which weights around 1400 gms called brain at least once in a while?

*pauses for two seconds*

Okay I’m done now, you can sleep now!

Moi: *blanks*

Thanks for scrolling down patiently ��

Afsar Saman

Afsar Saman

Répondu il y a 12w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 85 et de vues de réponses 110.3k

Mesut Ozil didn’t deserved this!

Who can write something random here?

He retired from International Football at the age of 29, despite being the top player for Germany and at his prime.

Il est un 5 time German Footballer of the year. The Très cher German Player of all time.

He won the Coupe du monde en 2014, 2 Euro Cup wins, La Liga with Real Madrid, FA Cup with Arsenal. Golden Ball Nominee at his first World Cup at age 22.

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It all started when he met the Turkish President Tayyip Erdogen in May 2018 and posed with him and exchanged an Arsenal Jersey, the Turkish Elections are announced that time and many viewed this is as politically motivated meeting and Ozil supporting him.

Erdogen is viewed as Pro Islamist though he is elected by elections it is known that he denies political freedom and slowly grabing power from other democratic institutions.

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Ozil’s parents are from Turquie and he said that it is respecting his parents culture and roots by meeting the country’s head. He denied in supporting him politically or morally and there was nor any intention.

The German Football Association Criticized Ozil for posing with him and he was heavily criticized by Extreme Right Wing Political parties in Germany.

After defending Champions Germany performing badly and its knockout in the first round Ozil faced the majority backlash as he was the best player in the team abused by fans, got death threat emails, calls. He was racially abused.

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But when Germany performed badly, Ozil featured in two of the country's three games, and averaged more chances per 90 minutes (5.5) than any other player in the competition. Yet he was criticized racially asking him to stop being Turkish and be a German.

Ozil always said that he is a proud German First and is really excited to play for Germany.

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This was taken when Erdogen was Turkish PM in 2011, 3 years later Germany won the World Cup.

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Then Ozil is Germany’s pride and does n’t matter if he is an immigrant or have a Turkish or Muslim background.

When Germany failed, they said he is playing dirt for years, he is a Turkish pig, he is an immigrant and not German.

Tailend: Its Ok to participate in a World Cup hosted by Russia that has no corruption, great political freedom and the world’s best and “democratically” elected head Poutine.

Who can write something random here?

Who can write something random here?

Just Shaking hands no intentions.

Waiting to see France get knocked out in the first round in the next World Cup, What will they say to their “immigrant” players.

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Anand Raja R

Anand Raja R, Writer at Quora (2013-present)

Répondu il y a 34w

Get the Big Picture of your surrounding,

Society: Trump is fool, wish someone blocks his twitter handle.

Moi: He is trying to do business in his own way, creating war like situation, and open defence market for america. Hope “America First”.

Society: don’t understand why people now flock to canada for higher studies, these days.

Moi: Canada has opened three year work visa for indians, immediately after their studies. Last year 40,000 indians went there. They would easily become citizen of canada with this visas.

Society: Don’t understand why people flocking to B.Sc., (Agri) degree now. Trying to make worst like Engineering.

Moi: Government made B.sc., (Agri) as a professional course, like engg., doctor, lawyer, they would be Agriculturalists in future. Necessary for current times.

Society: Is Tipu Sultan bad ? should we celebrate his birthday ?

Moi: It depends, he destroyed temples, at the same time, gave grants to build certain temples, purely on political calculation. More to learn from his administrative skills. Yes you can celebrate.

Society: Without Gandhi too, India would have got independence.

Moi: NO, Mr. Bose may be the reason for immediate withdrawal of Britain from India. Without Gandhi it would have become another 1857 not 1947. Without Gandhi no India.

If any more to know, please comment. I would answer, If I know.

“Me” - dedicated to UPSC aspirants.

Shiva Harish

Shiva Harish, Assistant Manager, RnD at Maruti Suzuki India Limited

Répondu il y a 28w

Freezing Future: Inside Chang La, India’s Doomsday Vault In The Himalayas

India’s ultimate back-up for its food supply, the Chang La seed vault in Ladakh has been built to stand the test of time — and the challenge of global catastrophes.

The Svalbard Global Seed Vault recently celebrated the 10th anniversary of its official opening in 2008. Built by the Norwegian Government on a remote island deep inside the Arctic Circle, this fail-safe repository houses the planet’s largest collection of seeds that come from nearly every country in the world, including varieties of staple crops like maize, rice, wheat, barley, and more.

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Svalbard Global Seed Vault

The idea behind this invaluable vault is to safeguard the world’s flora from global catastrophes, both natural and man-made. For instance, if nuclear war, coastal inundation, prolonged drought or plagues of pests leads to extinction of crop species in the future, governments will be able to request seeds from the vault to revive their agricultural sector.

Little wonder that the Svalbard Vault is referred to as the world’s doomsday vault. Interestingly, few people know that India too has its own doomsday vault and that its located in the snowy heights of the Himalayas.

Perched at at a height of 17,300 feet above sea level, India’s doomsday vault lies in Chang La (a high-altitude mountain pass in Ladakh) and is the ultimate insurance policy for the country’s food supply, offering options for future generations to overcome the challenges of climate change and population growth.

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Built jointly by the Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) and the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) in 2010 under the aegis of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), this permafrost seed bank is the second largest in the world.

It stores over 5,000 seed accessions (one accession consists of a set of seeds of a particular species collected from different geographical and demographic locations). These seeds — apricots, cabbage, carrots, potatoes, radish, tomatoes, barley, rice wheat, etc — have been prioritised for qualities such yield or resistance to temperature, pests or humidity.

Interestingly, the idea for a high altitude seed vault in Ladakh emerged after a mysterious locust invasion devastated the barley crop in the region!

As for why Chang La, the high-altitude mountain pass remains shrouded in snow for about nine months a year and there is little chance of ice-melt damaging the vault. The fact that its well above the sea level and tectonically stable ensures that its protected from ocean flooding, even in the worst case scenarios.

Also, Chang La’s natural permafrost conditions — 20% relative humidity and temperatures below -18 degrees Celsius (except in May and June) — offer an affordable and energy-efficient alternative to cryopreservation (the freezing of seeds to -196 degrees Celsius using liquid nitrogen).

The seeds are sealed in custom-made three-ply foil packages, placed inside black boxes and stored on shelves inside the stone-and-wood panelled building. The low temperature and moisture levels (artificially maintained inside the vault and naturally outside) ensure low metabolic activity, keeping the seeds viable for long periods of time.

As per data mentioned in a DIHAR bulletin, if kept undisturbed at this temperature and humidity, the expected longevity of seeds of onion is about 413 years, of rice is 1100 years, of wheat is 1600 years, of barley is 2000 years and of pea is a mind-boggling 9000 years.

This essentially means that a pea seed locked in the facility in 2018 can be taken out and successfully planted in the year 11018!

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India’s first Black Box for Svalbard Seed Vault contains pea seeds and carried the message – ‘For the well-being of one and all on the planet earth’.

Presently, the only other facility in India for long-term storage of seeds is the one set up by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) New Delhi but it generates an enormous electricity bill thanks to the energy demands of cryopreservation.

Furthermore, there is no village within a periphery of 30 km from the pass, thanks to low oxygen and bone-chilling temperatures in the winters. However, the Leh airport lies 75 km away. Thus, it is a remote location that is nevertheless accessible to both Indian scientist and the armed forces.

Interestingly, the Chang La seed vault’s sealed ‘black box’ design prevents disputes over intellectual property rights. According to this arrangement, the vault does not claim ownership over the deposited samples. Thus, the ownership remains with the depositor, who has the sole right of access to the respective samples in the seed vault.

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A box containing 25 accessions of Pigeon Pea marked India’s first-ever seed deposit to the Svalbard Global Seed Vault.

With the aim of rivalling the Svalbard Seed Vault, India has made storing of viable seeds at Chang La free of cost for all government departments and research organisations. It also plans to open the facility to the international scientific community but for that, it will have to install a high-tech cooling system for 15-20 days when the temperature at the mountain pass peaks to -4 degrees.

So even if something happens at Svalbard, India will have a final back up at Chang La — a set of carefully preserved seeds that can be restored, cultivated and sown to feed its citizens.

Ishant Doshi

Ishant Doshi, Medicine,Writing and Politics !! Goal - Either a P.M. or an Education Minister

Répondu il y a 30w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 196 et de vues de réponses 525.9k

Ever thought why me?

Read my story and there is a high probability that you won’t feel like that EVER!

(Lot of plot twists)

2014 was a big year for me. I had appeared for the 10th standard board exams and as I was expecting it to be, the results were great.

Grade – A2

Percentile Rank – 97.04

Also, I was moving to Mumbai and I was very excited about it. I wanted to be a doctor and had got myself enrolled at Aakash.

Juin 16, 2014 -

I started studying at Aakash Institute with full devotion.

The students here were so intelligent that my 10th standard grades didn’t matter and I developed a complex. My mark sheet saw an exponential decrease in marks both in Aakash and junior college.

I still didn’t give up. I didn’t join any committee in the college neither did I play any sport during that time. Studying was my only priority. Soon, my grades increased and so did my motivation.

Time passed by and soon 12th standard boards arrived. As I was told by my professors that I only needed to score 60% marks in boards which was the cut-off criteria I had prepared like wise.

I gave the boards and again shifted my focus back to Medical entrances.

The plot twist –

“Since I was born outside Maharashtra and completed my secondary education outside Maharashtra, I was ineligible for the MH-CET exam which was the entrance exam to study medicine in Maharashtra apart from the AIPMT which spared me with only 15% chance of studying here.”

“Since I completed my Higher Secondary from Maharashtra, I was ineligible to appear for the GUJCET exam which was the entrance exam to study medicine in Gujarat. Again, I was left with 15% chance to study medicine from the Gujarat state colleges.”

It was the month of April (The exams are conducted in May) when I came to know about this and I went numb.

I then wrote a letter to the Education ministers of the respective states and even tweeted about this to the Education minister of Maharashtra Mr. Vinod Tawde but I guess no one saw my tweet or even if they saw it they didn’t bother helping me as helping just an individual wouldn’t do any political profit to them!

I was left with just AIPMT and MGIMS. I started preparing hard. My parents would come into my room and ask me to sleep. I had cut myself off from the world and also stared reading Quora for getting tips to clear the exams.

Avril 14, 2016 -

I appeared for MGIMS entrance exam. Attempted all 180 questions and all 7 essay type questions though only 5 were compulsory. I was sure of being in Top -10 and getting a seat in that college and finally was relaxed after so long. Since I didn’t want to take a chance, I kept on studying hard for AIPMT.

Avril 27, 2016 -

My 18th birthday.

I spent the entire day studying like a mad man so that I could score 510+ marks in AIPMT and when I slept, I wished some miracle could happen. And It did!

Avril 28, 2016 -

3 days to AIPMT.

I woke up the news of all the State common entrance tests cancelled and instead only one common test for the whole country – NEET.

I was so happy but it stuck me later that all the other entrance examinations were cancelled too and those which were conducted were asked not to declare results.

I was screwed. Remember MGIMS?

I still managed to score 440 but I thought that the score wasn’t enough and I registered for the NEET-2 examination. A wrong decision!

I messed up the exam scoring even less and had to drop a year.

No one scolded me. Not a single word.

Instead, my parents said that even though I had 15% chance of getting in, I gave my 100%.

September 2016 - March 2017 –

I again cut off from the world. Used to lock myself in my room for 20 hours and used to study and sometimes answered questions regarding NEET.

I used to sleep at 7 in the morning. I didn’t even cut my hair for 9 months and was in complete state of depression.

Who can write something random here?

(Forced smile)

I again contacted the Education minister, Chief ministers of respective states, even tagged PMO and tried to contact Mr. Amit Gupta who is a teacher and an activist at Kota.

Everything Futile.

“My mother forcefully started sending me to play with people in the building and then I met my best friend. We then used to come down at 5 in the morning and talk. He slowly drove me out of depression to some extent.”

I was good to go again. I appeared for the exam again in 2017 and screwed up. I panicked and spoiled everything.

In AIIMS, I scored 97th percentile but couldn’t secure admission because of the cut throat competition.

My parents decided to get me into a deemed university even though the fee were in lakhs. They didn’t want me to go through all of this again. So, it was decided.

I didn’t get any college in the initial 2 rounds and there were some seats available during the mop-up round at Manipal university and Dutta Meghe college, Wardha.

We decided to Dutta Meghe as I have relatives at Wardha and Nagpur. So, we booked the tickets to Nagpur. The reporting time was 9:30 A.M. on August 31,2017 and we would reach Nagpur on August 30th.

I cut my long hair to look presentable at the college.

Plot twist –

It started raining cats and dogs in Mumbai on August 29th and soon it was a mini flood like situation. We got the news that the Airport was shut down and most of the flights were diverted or Cancelled.

So, we decided to go by Train.

Plot twist –

Nagpur - Mumbai Duronto express got derailed near Mumbai and so all trains were late by a day.

So, we couldn’t reach the college at the reporting time and I couldn’t get in to a medical college in 2017 also.

So, this is my story. There are many things which I haven’t typed considering the length of the answer. This is just 25%.

Ishant Doshi's answer to What is your high school topper doing now?

The guy at the end is me only!

“I sacrificed 3 years of my teenage, my health, my entertainment all for this dream! But I couldn’t do anything.

My teenage is going to end in April and I am sad I didn’t achieve anything in these years !”

Footnotes -

Shiny Chaubey

Shiny Chaubey, Scored 97.2 in Boards

Répondu il y a 51w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 165 et de vues de réponses 346.8k

Whether you believe in ghosts or not, it’s tough not to get freaked out when you’re alone and you hear something bump in the night or even hear a voice. The stories below will freak you out so it’s best to read these with someone. Preferably a friend and not a stranger you’ve decided to creep up behind on the street

Who can write something random here?

Le téléphone portable

Il y a quelques mois, la cousine de mon amie (une mère célibataire) a acheté un nouveau téléphone portable. Après une longue journée de travail, elle rentra chez elle, plaça son téléphone sur le comptoir et alla regarder la télévision. son fils est venu la voir et lui a demandé s'il pouvait jouer avec son nouveau téléphone. Elle lui a dit de ne téléphoner à personne et de ne pas plaisanter avec les SMS, et il a accepté.

Aux alentours de 11: 20, elle était assoupie, alors elle a décidé de rentrer son fils et d'aller au lit. Elle se dirigea vers sa chambre et vit qu'il n'était pas là. Elle a ensuite couru vers sa chambre pour le trouver en train de dormir sur son lit avec le téléphone à la main.

Soulagée, elle ramassa son téléphone de sa main pour l'inspecter. En la parcourant, elle n'a remarqué que des modifications mineures telles qu'un nouveau fond, une bannière, etc., mais elle a ensuite ouvert ses images enregistrées. Elle commença à effacer les photos qu’il avait prises jusqu’à ce qu’il ne reste plus qu’une nouvelle image.

Quand elle l'a vu pour la première fois, elle était incrédule. C'était son fils qui dormait sur son lit, mais la photo a été prise par quelqu'un d'autre au-dessus de lui ... et elle montrait la moitié gauche du visage d'une femme âgée.

Ghost Bro

My house was built in 1904. It is a single family home, wood frame setting on a concrete block foundation. I have been living here for about 12 years. Of all the weird things that my siblings and me have seen or heard in this house this one event is my favorite. This happened to my brother. About ten years ago my brother and his best friends had started a garage band playing mostly “Spanish rock,” alternative music but in Spanish. His friends could only get together on Sunday afternoons. They would practice into the early evening, and they would usually call it quits by 8 pm. This was the time I usually showed up and went to bed, cause I worked the graveyard shift.

This happened in late fall, so the days were getting shorter, they had just finished a long session when the decision to head to someone else house came about. My brother handed his car keys to his buddy so they could load up the equipment. Everyone had filed out of the basement, but the tricky part was that they needed to walk all the way to the back of the basement, up the back stairs, through the kitchen doorway, down the hall into the living room and out into the front porch. Everyone was outside sitting in my brother’s truck waiting for him. My brother was walking up the back stairs when he remembered that he had left his pancakes in a to go container sitting on a speaker in the basement. He made the decision to go back. Now the basement is not clean, with full sight lines, there had been partitions made, and the boiler and main heating unit are right smack in the middle. So after my brother walks back, he is about to retrieve his food container, when out of the corner of his eye he sees it.

It is a shadowy figure, right at his peripheral vision, this feeling of dread and uneasiness washed over my brother. We had been taught that if you are in the presence of a spirit or ghost and you felt a bad vibe, to say quick prayer or to cuss at it. My brother chose the latter, he basically just told it “hey fuck you, I don’t have time for this shit”.

My brother started to walk to the back of the basement and briskly up the stairs, closing doors and turning off lights as he was walking out. The last light switch is on the opposite side of the front door...luckily the door was open and the light from the street lamp was flooding the living room with its amber light. My brother said he felt something at his back, but at no point did he turn around. As he flicked the last switch the living room went dark, as did rest of the house. As he stepped out he pulled on the door closing it behind him, still holding his food container in one hand he jogged down the few porch steps. He walked towards the front gate...our house resides far from the main street, essentially having a large front yard but no rear garage. As he closed the gap between himself and his friend-laden truck he kind of smiled and thought things over in his head, mad at himself for spooking out when there was no reason.

He climbed into the drivers side of the truck, putting on his seat belt and getting ready to pull out of the parking spot directly in front of the house, when one of his friends asked “ Hey wait what about your brother, isn’t he coming with us?” My brother answered, “What do you mean? He went to work early tonight, he is already gone, do you see his car anywhere?”

The next question they asked “So then who was walking behind you when you were leaving the house? “

Who can write something random here?

The Rocking Horse

One night, when I was maybe 10-12, I had trouble falling asleep. My bedroom was the entire top floor of our house with my bed and such being on the left side and storage closets and a play area being on the right. I was lying in bed when I heard a noise from the other side of the room and see a rocking horse begin to rock. It was sitting just outside one of the storage closet doors. It proceeded to rock its way halfway across the room and stopped dead under the ceiling light. At this point I was freaking out and just buried my head under my blankets and never peeked out again until morning.

It was all confirmed to not be a dream as the rocking horse was still in the middle of my room when I woke up. Furthermore, I got a stern reprimand from my parents for being up out of bed playing with my toys well past my bedtime. Their bedroom was directly below the storage closet/play area and had heard the creaking of the rocking horse shuffling across the room.

Le suivant

My older sister has a ghost that’s follo

What is the definition of the term 'literary essay?

Caroline Austin

Caroline Austin, works at American Psychological Association (2017-present)

Répondu il y a 31w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 246 et de vues de réponses 1.4m

What is the definition of the term 'literary essay?

“The basic definition is: it is a piece of writing, measuring around 250-300 words (but otherwise may be specified by your teacher or professor, so make sure to check the requirements) that analyzes a literary work. It may analyze each and every aspect of, say, a novel: the style, the contribution to the literature in general, reflection of the author’s biography in the essay, the plot, the literary language and so on. Or, alternatively, it may focus on one of a few aspects which have just been mentioned. However, the object of your critical analysis will not be an article, but a literary work.”

La source: Response Paper Blog

Kayla Piller

Kayla Piller, Écrivain en écriture (2006-present)

Répondu il y a 25w

A literary analysis essay is an academic assignment that examines and evaluates a work of literature or a given aspect of a specific literary piece. It tells about the big idea or theme of a book you’ve read. The literary essay may be about any book or any literary topic imaginable.

How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay

When you’re taking a literature course, you clearly expect some degree of academic writing to be involved. You’ll be reading books, and you’ll be discussing them in class. However, you’ll also analyze those books in written.

There’s a problem: your professors assign you the books and they ask you to write the paper, but they don’t teach you how to write a literary essay step by step. Some students assume they can find some reviews on Goodreads and paraphrase them. Others go through blogs maintained by passionate readers, and they assume that that’s the style they should follow.

This type of paper needs a specific format. Plus, you’ll have to maintain an adequate style of academic writing. You can’t write like a blogger would write, and you cannot copy Goodreads or Amazon reviews. What you should do is read that book and write a proper literary essay that would leave your professor impressed.

Are there any guidelines you can follow to achieve that goal? Of course there are! In the most basic form, these are the steps you should follow:

  • Understand the purpose of a literary analysis;
  • Understand the format (learn what this type of assignment must include in its content);
  • Plan
  • Écrire
  • Éditer

Sounds pretty simple, doesn’t it? As any other student, you need more tangible guidelines that teach you how to handle this particular assignment. As always, we’re here to help with that! Read through this step-by-step guide, and you’ll be ready to start writing the literary analysis by the end of the day.

I’m think that the best literary essay writing services in the world are : 99papers et EssayBox. Aussi, vous pouvez utiliser 1essay, MyAdmissionsEssay or PaperHelper (PaperHelper also have services for Allemagne étudiants, Chinoisétudiants et Arabic étudiants) et EssayFactory writing service for UK students. These services also provide cover letters, research papers, dissertaions and other types of writing works.

I’m fing good reviews about some of these services. Please, read and choose the best essay service online!

When it comes to choosing an essay writing service you need to have some kind of checklist to make the right choice. While paying an attention to these things you won’t be able to make a mistake and for sure you will get the service you have been looking for:

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So either you are looking for best college application essays writing service or quality thesis writing team these characteristics will help you to make the right choice.

  1. 99papers

Writing an assay is a difficult task. You have to undertake study on the topic, go through all possible academic literature related to the theme and write a conclusion. Those students who lack penmanship, scientific approach and time 99papers is the best solution for academic problems.

What is the definition of the term 'literary essay?

Présentation de la société

La société travaille depuis des années 6 et possède des milliers de documents terminés. Ils n'emploient que des rédacteurs qualifiés, spécialisés dans plus de domaines que 300. 99papers reviews are quite controversial, so we decided to make and order and evaluate 99 papers from our point of view.

La qualité du site

Le service de rédaction personnalisé propose de nombreux produits d'écriture:

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Beside writing these papers, 99papers supplies editing and proofreading services. We ordered an essay in Economics.. The topic was covered at length with proper citing and referencing. The theme was backed up by numerous quotes and scientific research. In a whole, the quality of the work was satisfactory with all details and requirements met.

Si vous voulez connaître la qualité des essais, vous pouvez lire leurs exemples disponibles sur le site. Ils ont été spécialement écrits par leurs écrivains à des fins de familiarisation. Ils écrivent des articles académiques pour tous les niveaux académiques: lycée, premier cycle, maîtrise et doctorat.

99papers prix et remises

Les prix sont assez compétitifs et abordables dans le créneau de rédaction d’essais. Le prix minimum pour l'urgence maximale commence à partir de 9 $ par page. Le prix le plus élevé est de 52 $ pour un doctorat d’urgence de trois heures.

Ils ont un prix standard pour les rédacteurs, la garantie du meilleur rédacteur avec les commentaires les plus positifs et le grand expert de votre discipline pour un supplément de 7.99 $ par page et une garantie pour le rédacteur ENL, un rédacteur qualifié qui peut être affecté à votre commande pour une valeur de 8.99 $ par page. En tant que nouveau client, le meilleur écrivain nous a été fourni gratuitement.

They apply 7.5% discount automatically on your order or you can ask for 99papers coupon through the chat. Be always open for communication and never feel shy to ask for some discount. Yet, we were told that unfortunately the 7.5% discount was the max. The company does not provide any additional services as plagiarism report and assignment guidance. So in conclusion it can be described as the cheap essay writing service.


Le site Web garantit que tous les papiers sont d'une qualité irréprochable et sont écrits à partir de rien. Ils vérifient chaque papier pour le plagiat avant de le soumettre à leurs clients afin de s'assurer de l'originalité du travail de nos écrivains. Chaque papier est vérifié pour son unicité à l’aide d’un logiciel de détection du plagiat spécialement conçu à cet effet. Le client doit donc être sûr que le papier est 100% unique.

Si un client n'est pas satisfait de la qualité du papier, il peut demander une révision illimitée dans les dix jours suivant l'approbation de l'essai. Le papier sera poli jusqu'à ce qu'il satisfasse le client.

99papers provides money back guarantee with full and partial refund. For more detailed information you can refer to their money back section.

Le site Web demande des informations personnelles telles que l'adresse e-mail, le nom et le numéro de téléphone. Ils assurent qu'aucune donnée personnelle ne sera divulguée à des tiers. Le paiement est effectué via le système de paiement PayPal ou par carte de crédit et les informations de paiement ne sont pas stockées à des fins de sécurité.

99papers avis et réputation en ligne

Le site Web est assez fiable et le site Web suscite beaucoup de commentaires positifs. Sur Sitejabber, certains utilisateurs font l'éloge du service de site, tandis que d'autres affirment que la société ne prouve pas la qualité des essais promis. L’examen du site Youtube ne fournit pas une attitude objective à l’égard du site et informe principalement des services fournis par la société. Les autres commentaires n'ayant pas de date, nous ne pouvons pas en savoir plus sur le sujet. En outre, le site ne comporte pas de section de témoignage permettant aux utilisateurs de lire leurs commentaires.

Dates limites

Le service de rédaction d’essais fournit l’urgence 15 + jours et l’urgence minimale 3 heures. Nous avons commandé un essai de page 3 pour l’urgence des heures 6. Le document a été soumis avec une demi-heure de retard. Nous avons demandé un remboursement et le responsable des litiges a satisfait à notre demande. Le papier a été écrit assez bien et n'a pas besoin de révision. 99% des commandes sont terminées à temps ou avant la date limite, les cas comme le nôtre sont rares et les rédacteurs seront pénalisés.

99papers support

Vous pouvez demander de l'aide par téléphone gratuit, chat en direct ou par courrier électronique. Il n’ya pas de file d’attente dans le chat en direct et les représentants de l’assistance s’engagent immédiatement après avoir posé la question. L'équipe de support est toujours prête à aider les clients avec toutes les questions, même absurdes, et à répondre à toutes vos demandes. De plus, vous pouvez communiquer directement avec votre auteur et envoyer des amendements et les détails de votre essai. Les représentants de l'assistance sont toujours polis et l'attente d'un temps de réponse n'excède pas cinq minutes.

Facilité d'utilisation du site

Le site Web est convivial, avec toutes les sections pertinentes en haut de la page. La navigation est assez simple, vous devez suivre trois étapes simples pour passer une commande. Le bouton de commande est conçu en orange et est facilement visible. Les sections relatives aux garanties et aux politiques sont situées au bas de la page. Toutefois, la page des conditions générales ne fonctionne pas. Il n'y a pas de section de témoignage sur le site et les utilisateurs ne peuvent pas lire leurs commentaires. Il n'y a pas non plus d'évaluation du site et du nombre d'écrivains et d'œuvres terminées.

Pour et contre

Le service de rédaction sur mesure présente de nombreux avantages: prix bas, support personnalisé et facilité d’utilisation. Toutefois, dans notre cas, le retard était un inconvénient majeur. Il y a eu quelques plaintes concernant la qualité et les services, c'est pourquoi ils ne peuvent pas être considérés comme un service parfait.


Pour conclure, nous avons été satisfaits de notre commande, bien qu’elle ait été soumise plus tard que promis. La qualité de l'essai était bonne, avec tous les formats observés. Ce n'est pas le meilleur site d'écriture, mais il séduit par ses prix bas et sa facilité d'utilisation. Nous allons faire d'autres commandes à partir de ce site.

2. EssayBox

Trouver une entreprise de rédaction d'essais légitime est une tâche intimidante, mais je suis là pour vous aider. L’une des entreprises dont on peut faire confiance est qu’elle livrera le document à temps et que le document sera rédigé par un professionnel: EssayBox.

Dans cet article d'EssayBox, vous constaterez que, comparé à ces services de rédaction d'essais bon marché qui promettent beaucoup et n'apportent rien, le service d'essais EssayBox s'en tient à ses principes et ne décevra pas. En fait, il compte de nombreux clients fidèles, en raison de leur professionnalisme, de l’excellent support en ligne, des écrivains autochtones anglais et de la garantie de remboursement intégral. En plus, EssayBox est un service juridique qui vous donne la tranquillité d'esprit.


Comme vous le savez déjà, nous n’avons pas tous les compétences nécessaires pour rédiger des articles universitaires. Clairement, mon ami et moi étions une de ces personnes. Mon ami chinois utilise ce service depuis un certain temps et a toujours essayé de me persuader de passer une commande pour mon travail. Malgré le fait que j'avais mes propres sites Web les mieux notés, j'ai finalement décidé d'essayer ce service EssayBox.

Je peux dire que EssayBox est génial et que je reçois toujours A pour mon papier. Donc, si vous me demandez ce qu'est EssayBox, je vous dirai que c'est le service qui fait ce qu'il est censé faire et le fait à chaque fois.


Même si les prix sont un peu plus élevés que pour d’autres services de rédaction d’essais (par exemple, un essai pour Masters, date limite: 5 days coûte 34 $ par page - mots 275, à double interligne), ça vaut vraiment le coup.

Vous obtenez un article 100% authentique, une confidentialité garantie, un support en ligne 24 / 7, et bien plus encore. Si vous êtes un nouveau client ou que vous commandez des pages 20 +, vous bénéficiez également de réductions avec un code promotionnel EssayBox. Vous pouvez également utiliser ma remise personnelle de première commande 5%.


Le service de rédaction sur papier EssayBox est réputé pour la production de papiers de haute qualité, rédigés et édités par des locuteurs de langue maternelle anglaise. Les articles sont écrits à partir de zéro, chaque essai est donc unique et sans plagiat.

EssayBox est un service que j'utilise lorsque je dois commander un travail académique complexe. Oui, ce n'est pas donné, mais je peux être sûr de la qualité.


EssayBox Le service accepte divers modes de paiement (PayPal, Visa, Amex, MasterCard), vous permettant ainsi de payer facilement et rapidement votre essai.


Comme déjà mentionné, le service est légal. De plus, vos informations personnelles seront protégées et resteront confidentielles. Ils vous garantissent également des papiers sans plagiat (les papiers sont soumis à un système de vérification du plagiat) et une garantie de remboursement.

Si vous souhaitez qu'un rédacteur apporte des modifications à votre document, vous pouvez le demander. Vous avez le droit de faire des révisions gratuites et illimitées dans les 10 jours suivant la réception du document. Vous devez simplement ajouter des notes sur les modifications souhaitées, et leur équipe de support vous contactera dans les meilleurs délais.


Incroyable, mais mis à part les fausses critiques négatives faites par des concurrents déloyaux, il n’ya pas d’autre rapport de consommateur énervé sur Internet. Plutôt l'inverse, en fait. Par exemple, les critiques de EssayBox chez TrustPilot sont positives pour la plupart.

Et voici quelques critiques que j'ai reçues par courrier de mes lecteurs:

"Service extrêmement professionnel et légitime. Le document de recherche a été rédigé conformément à toutes mes exigences et à toutes mes expactations."

Visiteur anonyme

"... J'ai déjà essayé Essaybox pour une revue de littérature. Ils étaient excellents et professionnels dans leur travail, ce qui a beaucoup aidé à donner de bonnes idées."

Visiteur anonyme


  • Soutien. L'équipe de support d'EssayBox est disponible 24 / 7 et est très utile.
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  • Mon ami a dit que parfois vous devez demander quelques révisions parce que le rédacteur peut ne pas répondre à toutes vos exigences ou vous n'aimerez tout simplement pas certaines parties de l'essai.
  • Prix. Le service d'écriture EssayBox n'est pas bon marché. Il est conçu pour les personnes qui veulent payer le bon prix pour la qualité.


Eh bien, c’est tout ce que j’ai à dire sur cet excellent service de rédaction d’essais EssayBox. Comme vous pouvez le constater, ce service n'est pas une arnaque. Au contraire, il est fiable et produit des documents académiques de grande qualité. Vous pouvez également consulter les critiques EssayBox si vous souhaitez en savoir plus.

3. MyAdmissionsEssay

MyAdmissionsEssay est un service professionnel de rédaction et de révision offrant des services tels que la rédaction d’essais, l’aide aux devoirs, les services de révision, la rédaction de thèses et de thèses. Le service est légitime et propose des documents écrits par des professionnels à partir de zéro.

Malgré son nom «My Admissions Essay», la société fournit toutes sortes de services de rédaction:

Comment obtenir votre essai écrit avec MyadmissionsEssay

4 étapes faciles:

  1. Remplir le bon de commande. Soyez aussi précis que possible en remplissant les détails de votre papier.
  2. Procéder au paiement de votre essai. MyAdmissionsEssay est un service de rédaction prépayé, vous devrez donc payer en une fois. Veuillez noter qu'il n'y a pas lieu de s'inquiéter, car l'entreprise garantit des révisions gratuites et un remboursement si vous n'aimez pas le papier. Une autre chose à garder à l'esprit est qu'il existe des types de remboursement 3 proposés par ce service de rédaction personnalisé:
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  • un remboursement en% 70
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Nous vous conseillons de lire d'abord la garantie de remboursement pour connaître tous les détails.

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Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?



Répondu il y a 115w

J'ai volé un bateau Zodiac, je l'ai foutu en l'air, j'ai essayé de tout cacher, tout foutu en l'air ...

Nous sommes trois amis. L'un est un grand gars, a des cheveux géniaux, des bagues et des tatouages. Il a déjà poignardé quelqu'un. Oh, nous sommes 16 et 17, au fait. L'autre est court, musclé, fume de l'herbe et des cigarettes, a quelques problèmes familiaux. Eh bien, les deux ont fait.

Je n'avais rien de cela. Était propre et ne serait jamais considéré comme un «voleur» par personne… Jusque-là.

Ils étaient saouls et nous avons décidé de voler un zodiaque. Nous l'avions déjà fait auparavant. Aucun problème majeur. Qu'est-ce qui nous empêche de voler un autre? Droite.

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

Comment voler un zodiaque:

  1. Obtenez du papier toilette ou une serviette en papier.
  2. Mouillez-le et faites-en une petite forme de carte, il agira comme votre clé.
  3. Mettez cette "clé" dans la tache du Zodiac, sur le moteur.
  4. Tirez le truc, vroom vroom!

Quoi qu'il en soit, nous avons volé ce Zodiac avant, pas de problème. Allons-y… Nous sortons de la mini-marina lentement, sans prévenir ce gardien de nuit et partons dans une petite aventure. Nous commençons à nous éloigner du club qui se trouve au bord de l’île, autour de 2 AM, c’est notre troisième fois ce soir-là que nous volons le bateau après en avoir déposé d’autres.

Le moteur prononce un son étrange, trrrrrrrraackkk. Merde. Ca c'était quoi? Rien bien sûr, continue. Il y a une autre petite île pas trop éloignée de notre île, elle est en fait assez proche. C'est extrêmement petit, il n'y a qu'une seule maison dessus, beaucoup de chiens aboient au fur et à mesure que nous nous rapprochons. J'essaie de m'éloigner, mais le dur à cuire est ivre et a une emprise plus forte que je ne le pense. Devinez, on y va quand même…

Il y a deux quais… Eh bien, j'ai Google's l'île, voici une photo:

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

En nous rapprochant du quai du côté droit, je peux voir les marques «INTERDIT» et «NE PAS TRESPASS» sur les quais (graffiti). Et puis, je peux voir une putain de corde bleue reliant les quais! Littéralement, une corde presque invisible est bleue, elle est basse mais serrée et si nous ne la voyions pas, le moteur pourrait être attrapé et nous pourrions être laissés dans cette île comme farine de chien.

Alors laissez-moi vous donner le plan de la séance:

  • Le gars de muscle court est sur le dos, conduisant.
  • Je me tiens à côté de lui.
  • Le grand gars est assis sur le bateau (le bout), donc on ne rebondit pas trop dans les marées.

Soudain, le moteur s'arrête. Ce n’est normalement pas effrayant pour nous, car cela se produit tout le temps, à peu près toutes les minutes 5, puisque nous utilisons des essuie-tout comme carte… Cependant, nous nous rapprochons du quai à gauche et des chiens aboient dessus. à nous. Je jure que c'est réel. Le dur à crier mon nom et me serre littéralement dans les bras, le gros gars essaie aussi de prendre de la distance avec les chiens et je crie au type qui a du muscle pour démarrer le moteur.

Maintenant, rappelez-vous qu'ils sont tous deux ivres, et voici la conversation:

Big guy: FUUUUUUUKK (nous ne sommes ni américains ni anglais, donc dans ma langue, il est beaucoup plus prononcé et plus drôle: D)
Petit gars: ******* (mon nom, en criant)
Moi: va te faire foutre et que le moteur fonctionne, putain de crétin!

Alors il démarre le moteur au premier essai! C'est de la chance. Nous partons. Et nous retournons au club, non? Nope… Le gars court, ivre et musclé me ​​souffle à l'oreille:

"Regardez, je vais le laisser tomber" en montrant le grand gars assis au sommet du bateau. Il commence à faire des manœuvres folles, à toute vitesse. Le grand gars crie et ils sont tous les deux vraiment saouls, alors j'essaie de me débarrasser du moteur avant que quelqu'un meure, mais je ne peux pas. Soudainement, les petits gars en vitesse maximale tentent de casser le bateau vers la gauche aaaaaa et à ce moment, un autre ttrrrrraaaaacckk et soudain le putain de moteur n'est plus dans l'eau, mais il est dans l'air, de côté… des voies de putain de côté. Les pales sont dangereusement exposées et tournent encore pendant un bref moment avant que mes amis ne s’éloignent brusquement, puis le moteur tombe à la mer. La seule chose à penser à le retenir est le cordon.

Mon grand ami, pris de panique, saisit également le cordon et tente de le tirer. À ce moment-là, nous foutons tout en l'air, le cordon est hors de l'eau. Le problème, c'est que le moteur est parti… Maintenant, nous sommes dans la mer, aux alentours de 2 AM et nous ne pouvons plus bouger. De la photo, j'ai posté ci-dessus, nous sommes un peu en dehors de la grande section de l'île. Loin des chiens, heureusement.

La panique nous entoure tous, nous avons littéralement perdu le moteur de quelqu'un après l'avoir volé pour un tour. Nous téléphonons à nos amis qui sont dans le club et nous attendent. Les filles sont inquiètes, elles disent qu'elles vont le dire à leurs parents, on leur dit non. Il y a un autre gars, qui est un ami proche du club et nous le prions de nous sauver. Il est d'accord.

Alors, comment vient-il?

En volant un autre bateau! Pourquoi pas!

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

Celui qu'il vole est beaucoup plus petit et après quelques minutes 15, il est capable de démarrer le moteur et de nous retrouver au milieu de la mer avec nos lampes de poche iPhone ouvertes. Nous essayons de bouger en attachant les bateaux vers le haut, mais chaque fois qu’il essaie de bouger, son petit bateau tourne. Il nous demande une bouteille de vodka (je sais, quel connard) et une paire de nouvelles nageoires avant d’accepter de nous sauver la vie, alors… Nous faisons de petits gains vers notre île, mais c’est impossible. Nous essayons d'attacher les bateaux de nombreuses façons. Nous essayons de renverser son bateau vers le nôtre, de nous renvoyer à l’île mais en vain notre bateau est beaucoup plus gros que lui.

Et puis, ça arrive. IL EST SANS GAZ. Qu'est-ce qu'on fait maintenant? Nous sommes au milieu de la mer. Deux bateaux. Une sans moteur, une avec un moteur mais sans essence. Les petits gars maintenant des bateaux zodiacaux. Il dit que nous pouvons simplement transférer le gaz à son dépôt de gaz. Nous avons un énorme qui est très complet, alors nous sommes bons.

Non, il s'avère que nous ne pouvons pas ouvrir le système à gaz ou que ce n'est pas compatible. Nous appelons donc désespérément d’autres personnes, implorons la miséricorde, demandons de l’aide, appelons les filles, leur disons que tout va bien, et nous arrivons aussi. Je viens avec l'idée d'errer. Vous voyez ces pagaies? Oui, moi et le grand gars les utilisons pour ramer non seulement notre bateau, mais aussi celui de notre ami, il s'accroche à la corde de notre zodiac.

Après une demi-heure d'aviron, épuisés, nous nous accrochons à ceux-ci.

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

Image réelle de l'endroit.

Voir les trucs rouges et blancs, peu importe comment ils s'appellent. Avec nos mains, nous les utilisons pour nous tirer et nous atteignons enfin notre propre club en ramant un peu plus d'aviron quand ces choses se terminent. Maintenant, nous pouvons voir les filles et nous espérons que le tuteur ne nous attend pas. Ce n'est pas le cas, une des filles a réussi à l'envoyer dans une autre direction.

Nous nous approchons lentement du quai du club et le petit gars descend le premier. Nous nous sommes souvenus qu'il y avait une caméra à côté du quai, il l'a donc contournée et y a placé une autre serviette en papier humide. Comme si nous étions un groupe criminel organisé. Nous attachons la corde comme si nous l’avions trouvée exactement au même endroit et assemblions les bateaux comme nous les avions trouvés. Un par un, nous descendons puis sortons du club en empruntant une autre sortie (en sautant par-dessus le mur latéral).

Je reste chez mon petit ami musclé cette nuit-là et quand je me lève, il parle à sa mère pour tout nier. Mais sa mère dit que vous êtes sur caméra! D'accord… Nous avons donc bloqué l'appareil photo après notre retour, mais nous ne l'avions pas fait avant de le voler… Très intelligent.

Quoi qu'il en soit, nous apprenons que le chef du club a empêché le capitaine du bateau d'informer la police et que tout le monde se connaît dans le club, et que nous pourrions régler cela en interne, alors il ne l'a pas fait. La police n'intervient jamais, comme le type de son moteur 2,000, chacun de nous ($ 700) et nous sommes heureux de ne pas avoir à faire face à une peine de prison ni à quoi que ce soit du genre.




Mise à jour il y a 118w

Devenir anonyme pour l'amour de mon ami. C’était aux États-Unis il ya environ 6, quand il avait 17.

Quand il était plus jeune, il contrefaisait des petites coupures (10 $ et 20 $), allait dans les magasins, achetait de petits articles avec les bons contrefaits et recevait de la monnaie en retour.

La plupart du temps, il s'habillait avec une chemise à boutons et un pantalon pour avoir l'air présentable, et mettait un sourire sur son visage pour que les gens croient qu'il était juste une personne honnête et sympathique, même s'il était les escroquer. Une escroquerie en particulier était au centre commercial juste avant la fermeture. C'était un centre commercial assez peuplé, et il y avait un préposé à la bijouterie debout devant la bijouterie.

Il a dit au préposé: «J'ai perdu un pari avec mon ami et je lui dois $ 10, mais tout ce que j'ai, c'est cette facture de 20». Elle ne savait pas que c'était de la contrefaçon et elle ne l'a même pas regardée, car il était bien habillé et lui souriait.

Elle entra dans la bijouterie avec lui (plein de caméras de surveillance, remarquez) et échangea le faux 20 contre un vrai 10. Mon ami était plus riche en 10.

Une autre arnaque était assez simple: il commandait une pizza à emporter, se promenait dans la pizzeria, payait pour la pizza et gagnait environ 10 - plus riche en 15, et en obtenait une pizza gratuite.

Jamais attrapé. Presque une fois, cependant. Avant de raconter cette histoire, voici comment il a fait ses factures:

À la maison, il les imprimait sur son imprimante à jet d'encre normale, les vaporisait avec de la laque pour la texture et les froissait plutôt bien. Voila. Bien que le projet de loi ne passe définitivement pas une inspection minutieuse, c’est le sourire sur le visage et la supercherie psychologique générale qui ont fait le succès de l’escroquerie.

Alors, dans l'histoire de presque se faire prendre:

Il entra dans une station-service en short et t-shirt (il s'agissait de sa première tentative d'arnaque et l'addition était sensiblement plus petite qu'elle n'aurait dû l'être). Il la mélangea avec une autre facture réelle et la tendit à la caissière. Il a oublié de sourire et de s'habiller bien. Elle regarda les factures, le regarda et dit: «désolée, je ne peux pas accepter ça, on dirait que c'est un faux."

Dans un faux scandale, il a déclaré: «Eh bien, je viens de le recevoir de la banque! Que devrais-je faire? Devrais-je retourner à la banque et leur dire qu'ils m'ont donné de l'argent factice? "

Lui et le caissier ont tous deux convenu que c'était la meilleure solution et ils étaient tous les deux "en colère" du fait que la banque lui ait donné de la fausse monnaie.

Comment la banque pourrait-elle faire une chose pareille?!


Il devrait être plus riche en $ 20… oui ou non? Je veux dire que la vendeuse lui donnerait deux 10 pour le 20, sinon elle soupçonnerait un escroc. Personne n’échange un vrai 20 contre un seul 10.

Commenté par Darrin Jones

Merci à ceux qui ont souligné cette même chose (c'était une faute de frappe). C’était un échange d’un 20 $ contre deux billets de 10, avec l’idée qu’il devait à son ami, $ 10, mais qu’il ne disposait que du billet de 20 et devait le scinder en coupures inférieures. Bonne prise!

Leonardo Morán

Leonardo MoránJe suis né à Cuba, ai étudié et travaillé en Europe et vis en Californie.

Mise à jour il y a 105w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 207 et de vues de réponses 2.1m

Je vais souvent à Cuba pour rendre visite à des parents. Au cours d'un récent séjour, dû aux caprices du hasard et à l'avarice de mon chauffeur embauché, le KGB cubain a mal interprété ma visite comme un complot d'assassinat potentiel contre le président Castro.

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

Mes parents, juste avant la révolution, Santiago de Cuba

J'avais embauché une voiture et un chauffeur pour la durée. Virgilio (mon chauffeur) a partagé ses opinions au volant d'un 56 Plymouth en train de rouiller: manuel à la vitesse 3, cylindres 6, pas de climatisation. En quittant mon hôtel, il s'est tourné vers moi avec un murmure prudent. «Quelqu'un a pénétré dans ta chambre la nuit dernière? Quelque chose manque? Des lettres? Des photos? »Nous avons lutté dans les collines escarpées de Santiago. Il se pencha sur la bosse de transmission et confia: «Ils étaient chez moi hier soir. Je voulais savoir ce que tu fais. M'a pompé pour des réponses. Je n'ai rien dit, bien sûr. Rien. Tu peux me faire confiance. Tu es mon ami! Ami et confidente!

Les mystérieux "ils" de Virgilio étaient, bien sûr, le MININT: le ministère de l'Intérieur de Cuba. Créé avec l'aide de la Stasi est-allemande et du KGB soviétique, le MININT est toujours une force avec laquelle il faut compter.

«Je suis le modèle de la discrétion, a-t-il promis. Je n'ai jamais trahi une âme.» Il tira la peau au-dessous d'un œil (un geste local signifiant «méfiez-vous»). Puis murmura: «… Et je peux deviner ce qu'ils veulent. N'est pas né hier. C'est à propos de ton vieil homme. Ha. Oui. Ai-je raison? »Il jeta un coup d'œil averti. «Ton père et ce qu'il a fait pour… tu sais…El Caballo… "

Nous avons été arrêtés à un feu de signalisation semi-fonctionnel. Il me jeta un coup d'œil prudent avant de caresser une barbe imaginaire; une pantomime utile dans un pays où la mention irrespectueuse de Fidel peut encore vous faire gagner la visite de votre comité.

Nous n'étions pas loin de la maison d'Hortensia. Prudente et avisée, la matriarche vieillissante écoutait doucement ses commérages. Elle lui a ordonné dans sa cuisine. Un éventail oscillant des années 50 craqua et tourbillonna alors qu'il masquait leur conférence. Finalement émergeant, elle l’a envoyé faire une course à pied. Ensuite, elle a préparé le café que j'avais apporté des États-Unis. (Cinquante ans et plus après le triomphe de la révolution, les armoires sont toujours nues et les excellents grains de café de Cuba, jadis vendus à un prix avantageux, sont amassés comme des pierres précieuses.) Elle a soigneusement versé deux cartouches dans des tasses en porcelaine fêlées. "Le méchant dit la vérité", dit-elle finalement. "Mais il ne vous a pas tout dit."

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

Lucas Morán et Raúl Castro, 1958, aux côtés des forces rebelles dans la Sierra Cristal

La Cuba marxiste (pour ceux qui la vivent) est sécurisée par des couches de surveillance, d’intrigues et d’espions. Oui, le ministère de l'Intérieur était allé chez Virgilio. Oui, ils enquêtaient sur moi. Mais Hortensia n’avait pas survécu aux années 75 sans avoir appris quelques astuces. Elle en déduit que le rusé Virgilio était bien trop curieux. Il avait clairement conclu un accord avec le MININT. Il prenait leur salaire en échange de toute information qu'il pourrait glaner sur moi. Parce que (malgré la légion d'admirateurs étrangers de Cuba, ces observateurs qui voient, mais ne parviennent pas à percevoir), mon lieu de naissance reste (pour ceux qui n'ont pas de visa de sortie) un État policier.

Les visiteurs étrangers sont convaincus que nous, Cubains, sommes un peuple heureux, enfantin, infiniment satisfait de notre maigre sort de la vie. Pas assez. Depuis la révolution castrale de 1959, chaque citoyen cubain a été contraint, par la pauvreté et les circonstances, de devenir un marchand de rue. Ils le font par nécessité. Dans un système qui paie un salaire moyen de 20 par mois et où le gouvernement détient 97% des entreprises, le citoyen est effectivement pris en otage par l’État. Il (ou elle) ne survit qu'en volant son employeur… c'est-à-dire le gouvernement de Cuba. Si le lieu de travail d'une jolie fille n'a rien à valoir, il est possible qu'elle vende son corps à des touristes étrangers.

Une fois de retour dans leur pays d'origine, ces mêmes touristes répètent l'axiome fatigué suivant: «Les Cubains sont des gens heureux, enfantins, infiniment satisfaits de leur…» etc.

Cinquante-six ans après que Fidel Castro ait interdit la prostitution, le commerce du sexe est devenu notre principal secteur de croissance. Vous trouverez tout en vente sur le marché noir de La Havane. Mon chauffeur embauché faisait ce que tout le monde dans une économie marxiste est obligé de faire: s'engager dans une version déformée du capitalisme de marché libre. En échange de son travail (son espionnage), le Ministère le récompensait avec (au mieux) un autre 20 pour compléter son revenu de base 20. L'ironie de cette situation devrait être évidente pour tous. Mais il est perdu pour beaucoup.

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

Lucas Moran défendant la force d'invasion de Castro, 1957, la Cour d'urgence, Santiago de Cuba

J'avais attiré l'attention du ministère pour deux raisons. Tout d'abord, j'avais fait des réservations par inadvertance aux mêmes dates (et au même hôtel Meliá) où le commandant Raul Castro et le président à vie Vénézuélien Hugo Chavez tenaient leur sommet régional. Un observateur étranger pourrait conclure que ces probabilités semblent incroyablement longues. Elles sont. Mais alors, il n'y a qu'à Cuba qu'il est possible de partager un hôtel avec non pas un, mais deux dictateurs totalitaires. Imagine ma chance.

La situation était aggravée par le passé de ma famille. "Leonardo Morán est-il venu ici", s'inquiète le ministère, pour "assassiner Raúl Castro ... celui qui a déjà tenté de tuer Lucas Morán, le père?"

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

Lucas Moran, avec les forces rebelles dans la Sierra Maestra, 1958

Hortensia a décidé qu'il n'y avait rien d'autre pour cela: "Il est temps", a-t-elle soupiré, "de demander une intervention divine." À Cuba, cela ne signifie qu'une chose: une consultation avec l'Esprit et un mot ou deux avec les dieux primitifs des Afro-Cubains. Foi. Vous ne devez pas considérer cela comme extraordinaire. Dans mon lieu de naissance, la dévotion envers ceux qui gouvernent dans le ciel prévaut sur l'obéissance envers ces divinités mineures qui ne font que diriger l'État.

Karl Marx, (les savants m'assurent), a défini la religion comme «l'opiacé des masses». Peut-être est-ce vrai. Mais Marx aurait dû ajouter que la nature de la foi marxiste nous oblige encore plus à embrasser notre opiacé. Les dieux du ciel nous offrent au moins l’espoir, tandis que ceux qui dirigent Cuba n’offrent que des slogans, des promesses et des mensonges.

Sur sa table de cuisine, elle disposa un petit autel: un crucifix, une bougie, de l'encens, du tabac, un verre de rhum et une poignée de cauris. Elle alluma un cigare et un bâton d'encens. La fumée parfumée (dit-on) pénètre dans le voile qui sépare ce monde du prochain et attire les esprits bienfaisants de notre côté.

Je n'ai rien dit pour se moquer de sa foi sincère alors qu'elle récitait une prière protectrice et m'a aspergé d'un peu de rhum. Renversant son cigare en combustion, elle plaça l'extrémité brûlante dans sa bouche, inspira profondément… puis expira rapidement. Ancienne technique autrefois pratiquée par les Indiens Taíno, la fumée de tabac nettoie le corps astral de toute malédiction persistante. Elle jeta ensuite les cauris et, lentement, soigneusement, lis leur signification. Pour confirmation, elle répéta son rituel deux fois, puis trois fois.

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

Suite à la décision du tribunal, les rebelles de Castro remercient l'avocat avec un symbole symbolique: un peso signé par les accusés.

Le message de l'esprit était clair. Mon saint gardien était Yemayá en Afrique, aspect primordial de la Vierge Marie et (comme tout le monde le sait), déesse mère de Cuba. Yemayá, dit-on, gouverne l'océan, la lune, les femmes et les enfants, les pêcheurs et les marins, les sorcières… et les secrets. Ma vie (et mon secret) étaient à sa charge. Yemayá me protégerait, à condition que je fasse l'offrande traditionnelle: sept roses blanches et trois nouveaux sous. Cast, (sous une pleine lune), dans la baie de Santiago.

Mon secret? J'écrivais un roman historique. Il se déroule à Cuba l'année 1958, au plus fort de la révolution castriste. J'avais aussi (discrètement) pris possession de certaines photos de famille. Ils montrent mon père, en uniforme rebelle, en compagnie de Raúl Castro, alors commandant de la République (à présent président de la République).

Visiter Cuba pour rechercher un roman illicite sur le thème de la révolution, sans la permission de l'État, est un acte illégal. La possession de photos sensibles et historiques prises au cours de la même révolution est également illicite. Mon livre et mes photos ont été à première vue preuve. La situation appelle (selon les mots de Hortensia) une intervention divine.

Quelle est la chose la plus 'illégale' que vous ayez faite et avec laquelle vous vous êtes enfuie?

Avec le deuxième front révolutionnaire dans la Sierra Cristal, 1958

Pour le peuple cubain, les questions surnaturelles sont une affaire de tous les jours. Nous reconnaissons discrètement que Fidel Castro est un adepte de la foi afro-cubaine. Divinité protectrice de Fidel est Changó: dieu du tonnerre, lanceur de foudre, hache-batteur, batteur à main, souverain du destin humain. Quand Changó danse, le ciel s'assombrit et le ciel s'anime. Pour ceux qui croient, Changó est l'incarnation de l'énergie masculine, de la vanité et de la violence, du pouvoir et de la fierté.

La couleur de Changó est rouge sang; son animal, le cheval; son numéro, l'Un. Les étrangers ne le savent peut-être pas, mais à Cuba, Castro est appelé El Caballo - le cheval. Sa couleur est la teinte rouge sang de Marx. Il est, si rien d’autre, le non élu. Même au XXIe siècle, les Cubains ont un profond respect pour les dieux primitifs de l'Afrique.. À Cuba, le passé n'est jamais complètement passé. Ça traîne.

Alors que le sommet de Chavez touchait à sa fin et qu'aucun complot vindicatif n'a été mis au jour, le MININT a perdu tout intérêt pour moi et Yemayá s'est montrée à la hauteur de ses paroles. Ma visite terminée, je suis rentré en Californie pour terminer mon manuscrit, aidé de certaines vieilles photos que je garde maintenant dans la Sierra de l'est de Cuba; un endroit où, depuis le mois de janvier de 1959, le temps a suivi le souhait de Fidel Castro de rester parfaitement immobile.

Avec des variations mineures, tous les citoyens cubains, dès leur naissance, doivent naviguer dans l'appareil de sécurité de leur pays. Ils le font en tant que seconde nature. Ils sont experts en la matière. les touristes ne peuvent pas commencer à comprendre la vie dans un État totalitaire. Mais ensuite, les touristes sont délibérément protégés de cette réalité par l'État lui-même.

Allez à Cuba. Avoir un mojito. Voir le Tropicana. Profitez de nos célèbres cigares. Mais sachez que votre expérience sera une construction artificielle, conçue pour vous par des personnes invisibles. Cette expérience, aussi plaisante soit-elle, n’est pas nécessairement partagée par d’autres moins fortunés et moins libres.


L'histoire de mon père (la raison pour laquelle le MININT m'a pris pour cible) est détaillée ici:
La réponse de Leonardo Morán à Comment différentes personnes dans le monde décrivent-elles Che Guevara? Comment est-il si populaire?



Répondu il y a 118w

En fait, j'ai arrêté de faire cela il y a quelques jours.

J'étais un pickpocket pour la location.
Mes camarades de classe paieraient ou échangeraient quelque chose contre ce que je volais, mais généralement, cambrioler des affaires parmi d'autres.

Le plus gros gain que j'ai eu a été 2,000 pour le vol à la tire d'un étudiant qui s'est faufilé dans un iphone.

cela a commencé quand j'étais en classe 4th, j'ai essayé de prendre le stylo bille de quelqu'un directement dans la poche et c'est ce que j'ai fait. Je me suis dit que je devrais en faire plus. Attendez quelques années et je suis devenu terriblement bon. Je volais habituellement une petite somme d’argent, mais parfois je devais faire mes favoris et voler des choses comme des téléphones.

J'avais tout le temps un plan pour le vol à la tire et un plan au cas où je serais suspecté. Pour les téléphones, j'ai fabriqué un faux fond dans ma chaussure. Je sortais le téléphone que j'avais volé, prétendait réparer ma chaussure mais, en réalité, je la glissais dans le compartiment. Pour l’argent habituel que j’ai pu voler, c’était plus facile cette année, car nous devions apporter des planches de bois pour un projet. J’ai donc apporté 1 en plus que j’ai veillé à ce que mon trou soit bien rangé. couvrez-le avec la planche de bois. Avant cette année, j'utilisais le dos de mes livres. Toutes les épines présentaient de petites lacunes dans lesquelles, une fois l'argent plié, je pouvais les enfoncer. Je ne me suis jamais fait prendre, mais mon école a constaté une augmentation massive du nombre d'objets volés et crée des inspections aléatoires, alors j'ai arrêté. Et puis-je vous rappeler que je me suis arrêté il y a quelques jours.

d'ailleurs si vous avez des questions, je serais heureux de répondre

Erica Hockey

Erica Hockey

Répondu il y a 96w

J'ai trois histoires et je ne peux pas décider lequel est le pire. Cela va être long. Disclaimer: Je n'étais pas le plus intelligent des enfants.

La première histoire s'est produite dans 2002 lorsque j'étais 15. Je traînais dans un appartement d'amis (nous l'appellerons Brooke) pendant que nous sautions l'école. Nous avons décidé d'appeler nos autres amis qui buvaient aussi. Longue histoire, j'ai fini par boire beaucoup trop. Nous avons tous fait. J'ai fini par vomir abondamment avant de perdre conscience vers 1 dans l'après-midi. Je me suis réveillé environ une heure plus tard. Brooke m'a secoué en disant que les flics allaient arriver. Je suis sorti dans le salon pour chercher des voitures de police 5 à l'extérieur, ainsi que des camions de pompiers 2. Je n'avais AUCUNE idée de ce qui se passait jusqu'à ce qu'ils me disent qu'une de nos amies s'est tellement saoulée qu'elle s'est déshabillée pour aller se déshabiller, est entrée nue dans le couloir de l'immeuble, s'est évanouie et s'est énervée. Puis elle a dit à la voisine, qui était parvenue à la maison et l'avait trouvée dans cette position, qu'elle avait été violée. Comme vous pouvez l'imaginer, le chaos s'est ensuivi. Une fois que les flics sont arrivés, la jeune fille a admis avoir menti sur le viol. La police a donné à tout le monde un alcootest et chaque personne a dépassé la limite, sauf moi. Le flic m'a demandé si j'avais quelque chose à boire, je lui ai dit que j'avais «un coup ou deux», mais j'ai soufflé un 0.0. Rien. J'ai bu de 8AM jusqu'à environ 1PM, j'ai vomi, je me suis évanoui et j'ai quand même réussi un alcootest. Je ne saurai jamais pourquoi c'est arrivé, mais je suis très reconnaissant parce que mes parents étaient les seuls à ne pas avoir été contactés ce jour-là.

La deuxième histoire est arrivée dans 2004, quand j'étais 17. C'est plus une histoire de proximité. À l'époque, j'étais un gros fumeur de tabac et mon petit ami et moi sommes allés dans les montagnes pour fumer de l'herbe. Nous l'avons fait souvent. Cette fois-ci, nous avions parcouru la montagne en voiture, en avoir fumé une cigarette et en remontant la montagne pour en fumer une autre. C'était l'hiver et il y avait de la neige sur le sol, alors quand nous arrivions au coin d'une rue, j'ai remarqué que des lumières rouges et bleues clignotaient sur la neige avant de voir la voiture de police elle-même. J'ai immédiatement jeté le couteau émoussé à moitié fumé par la fenêtre et j'ai rapidement dit à mon petit ami de baisser toutes les fenêtres. Il conduisait et était trop haut pour comprendre ce que je disais, et n'a pas remarqué les lumières clignotantes. Nous sommes arrivés au coin de la rue et, bas et voici, il y avait une voiture de police garée au milieu de la route avec un policier debout à l'extérieur qui nous a signalés.

À ce stade, la terreur a pris le dessus. Nous étions tous les deux en train de paniquer. Il nous a arrêtés et nous a demandé si nous avions vu quelqu'un avec des roues 4 (car il était illégal de conduire des roues 4 dans les montagnes). Nous lui avons dit non, nous ne l'avons pas fait. Ensuite, il nous a demandé quelle était "la drôle d'odeur" qu'il sentait venir de notre voiture. Nous lui avons dit que nous ne sentions rien. Il a allumé sa lampe de poche dans notre voiture et je pensais que nous étions condamnés. Mon petit ami conduisait la voiture de son frère à l'époque, qui avait un siège à l'arrière (avec le recul, je pense que cela aurait pu être utile). Il nous a ensuite demandé si nous avions bu. Nous lui avons dit non et il a demandé à sentir le thé glacé que nous avions dans la voiture. Nous l'avons laissé volontairement, puisque nous ne buvions pas. Il a semblé accepter nos réponses et nous a laissé partir. Comme nous avons commencé à partir, il nous a crié de nous arrêter. Il n'arrêtait pas de nous demander quelle était cette «odeur amusante». Nous sommes allés un peu en arrière avant qu'il nous demande pourquoi nos yeux étaient brillants. Mon petit ami lui a dit que c'était parce que la chaleur dans la voiture agissait et irritait nos yeux. Il nous a finalement laissés partir pour la dernière fois et, alors que nous partions, j'ai fouillé dans la poche de ma veste pour retirer mon briquet et j'ai sorti l'ONDULE DE WEED que mon copain m'avait demandé de tenir et que j'avais totalement oublié.

Dieu merci, ce flic était un idiot!

La troisième histoire s'est produite dans 2007 lorsque j'étais 20. Une de mes amies (nous l'appellerons Ashley), et je m'apprêtais à me rendre chez des amis lorsqu'un ami d'Ashley (nous l'appellerons John) a appelé et a demandé à être conduit pour déposer de l'herbe. Elle accepta car il proposa de la payer. Nous avons dû conduire dans un autre État à environ une heure de route. Ashley et moi buvions tout le temps (si bête, je sais) et une fois arrivés au lieu de rendez-vous, le gars n'est jamais arrivé. Nous avons attendu environ une heure avant de décider de partir. À propos de 15, quelques minutes après notre départ, nous avons été arrêtés par un policier sous couverture. Il a dit que c'était parce que nous avions jeté une cigarette par la fenêtre et que c'était illégal de le faire. À ce stade, j'ai remarqué qu'il y avait des voitures de police sous couverture 2. Le flic nous a demandé de sortir de la voiture et voulait nos papiers d'identité. J'ai dit au flic que mon identité était dans mon sac à main dans la voiture. Il m'a dit qu'il l'obtiendrait pour moi. Mon sac à main était en désordre et il a attrapé ma fausse identité (celle indiquant que j'étais 21) au lieu de ma vraie identité. Il l'a accepté. Les deux flics étaient à nos côtés maintenant et ils nous ont dit qu'ils devaient fouiller la voiture. Sachant que John avait de l'herbe, nous n'avions aucune idée de ce qui allait se passer.

Longue histoire courte, les chiens ont trouvé la mauvaise herbe. Nous avons tous été conduits au poste de police où les policiers nous ont dit que le type John vendait la mauvaise herbe pour le "piquer". C'est pourquoi nous nous sommes vraiment arrêtés. Ils nous ont dit avoir trouvé de l'alcool dans la voiture et nous ont donné un alcootest. Ils ne nous ont pas dit quels étaient les résultats, mais il était hors de question que nous soyons sous la limite légale, étant donné que nous étions mineurs. Ils nous ont dit qu'ils nous laisseraient partir parce qu'ils ne recherchaient que de la drogue. Ils nous ont demandé une dernière fois nos identifiants pour pouvoir les documenter, et le flic a encore fouillé dans mon sac à main, mais cette fois, il a trouvé mon vrai identifiant. Il s'est rendu compte que j'avais une fausse carte d'identité et m'a dit que cela pouvait aller jusqu'à une peine de 10. Après avoir pleuré et s’être excusé pour ce qui semblait être des heures (mais c’était vraiment au sujet de minutes 5), il m’a dit qu’il était un enfant aussi et qu’il comprenait. Il a pris ma fausse carte d'identité et nous a permis d'y aller. Une fois qu'Ashley et moi avons retrouvé sa voiture, nous avons réalisé que les chiens la séparaient littéralement de la voiture, mais ils ont laissé l'alcool.

J'ai tellement d'histoires sur des situations idiotes dans lesquelles je me trouvais quand j'étais plus jeune, mais ces 3 sont les pires. Je suis tellement contente que ces flics me laissent partir.

Anastasia Xu

Anastasia Xu, Oiseau errant cherchant l'unité avec la nature

Mise à jour il y a 97w

J'ai fait passer en contrebande des tortues 2 de Chine au Canada dans mon bagage à main.

Il y a de nombreuses années, je suis rentré en Chine pour une visite. J'étais très ennuyé de rester chez mes grands-parents pour cet été, alors ma mère a décidé de me faire une surprise avec un cadeau: des bébés tortues 2 provenant d'un marché le matin.

Ce n’était pas vraiment le divertissement que j’espérais mais j’ai apprécié les efforts de ma

Qu'est-ce qui rend le système de santé américain si coûteux? Pourquoi les États-Unis sont-ils si chers par rapport au Canada?

David Chan

David Chan, MD de UCLA, Bourse de recherche en oncologie de Stanford

Mise à jour il y a 138w · Voté par

Steven Michael, Médecin traitant, Médecine d’urgence et Médecine interne US Licensed and

Mircea Cristescu, Résident en radiologie, hôpitaux et cliniques de l'Université du Wisconsin · L'auteur a des réponses 2.5k et des réponses de réponse 12m

Réponse d'origine: Pourquoi les soins de santé aux États-Unis sont-ils si coûteux par rapport à d'autres pays proposant des traitements de qualité comparable ou supérieure?

Il existe une longue liste de raisons, mais voici un début.

1. Les Américains ne permettent ni n'acceptent le rationnement des soins de santé. L'Amérique dépense beaucoup plus pour les soins au cours des derniers mois de 6 que tout autre pays. Par beaucoup

Promenez-vous dans n’importe quelle unité de soins intensifs et vous rencontrerez régulièrement certaines personnes dans des conditions végétatives sans aucune chance de s’améliorer. Pourtant, ils reçoivent une presse complète avec tout ce qui peut être fait du point de vue de la technologie médicale.

Une partie de la pression pour ces soins vient de familles qui sont catégoriques contre le retrait ou le retrait des soins. Mais les médecins sont aussi coupables de traitement excessif. Nous connaissons tous des docteurs fous qui croient que des miracles peuvent se produire quotidiennement dans l'unité de soins intensifs, quelle que soit la situation désespérée.

La dépense est énorme et les familles américaines en sont divorcées. Si le patient n'est pas assuré, les coûts sont absorbés par l'hôpital traitant et les médecins. Si le patient est assuré, la franchise a été atteinte et le reste est payé par l'assurance ou par l'intermédiaire des contribuables (Medicaid / Medicare). 28% des coûts de Medicare concerne les derniers mois de la vie 6. C'est une tonne d'argent.

Vous ne verrez cela dans aucun autre pays doté d'un service de santé national. Les patients âgés ne commencent pas la dialyse dans le NHS en Angleterre. Ils meurent d'insuffisance rénale. Vous ne verrez pas non plus les personnes âgées de 75 ou de 80 subir un pontage quadruple. Les patients cancéreux au Canada et en Angleterre ne reçoivent pas systématiquement 10,000 $ par mois pour les médicaments contre le cancer qui prolongent la vie de plusieurs mois (en moyenne). Les médicaments ne sont pas du tout disponibles, comme au Canada, où certains médicaments anticancéreux ne sont jamais approuvés, ou ils deviennent virtuellement inaccessibles via une loterie en Angleterre.

Les Américains sont souvent trop traités. Les patients du NHS sont souvent sous-traités.

Soins de fin de vie: un défi en termes de coûts et de qualité

La loterie contre le cancer sévit encore

Je suis la preuve qu'un nouveau médicament miracle bat le cancer de la peau. Alors, comment le NHS peut-il laisser mourir des milliers de personnes comme moi?

Le temps d'attente pour les médicaments anticancéreux au Canada dépasse les États-Unis et l'Europe

2. Les Américains paient beaucoup plus pour les produits pharmaceutiques que quiconque dans le monde. Le gouvernement américain, sous la pression du lobby Big Pharma, refuse de négocier des taux d'escompte pour Medicare. Les Américains paient donc 30% à 300% de plus que les Canadiens pour le même médicament fabriqué au New Jersey ou en Californie.

Les consommateurs américains paient la facture des médicaments bon marché en Europe et au Canada

3. Il y a des gaspillages et des fraudes gigantesques dans les programmes Medicaid et Medicare. La facturation est électronique et le paiement est automatique. L'audit est très coûteux et apparemment très rare. Il est tellement lucratif et facile d’économiser des centaines de millions de dollars par régime que le crime organisé est maintenant impliqué.

Il existe des estimations raisonnables selon lesquelles la fraude est 120-180 milliards de dollars par an. Ce sont des nombres astronomiques.

Des critiques sont fréquemment formulées sur l'efficacité de Medicare / Medicaid, car leurs coûts administratifs sont si bas comparés à ceux des compagnies d'assurance. (Il est assez difficile d'arnaquer de grosses sommes d'argent auprès des compagnies d'assurance.) Mais l'administration de Medicare / Medicaid inclut le département HHS ainsi que divers organes du gouvernement fédéral chargés de l'application de la loi. Ce n'est pas bon marché. Et ce n'est apparemment pas très efficace non plus.

Et tandis que tous les États luttent contre la fraude à Medicaid, le Bureau de l'inspecteur général a déclaré que les cinq pays en tête de liste étaient la Californie, le Texas, New York, l'Ohio et le Kentucky. La bonne nouvelle est que les États ont récupéré des milliards de dollars 1.7 en paiements frauduleux en 2011. La mauvaise nouvelle est que le gouvernement a dû dépenser des millions de 208 pour le faire.

La fraude de Medicare et de Medicaid coûte des milliards aux contribuables

4. Les Américains exigent un accès immédiat à la technologie. Nous voulons avoir la possibilité d’obtenir demain une IRM ou une PET-Scan ou le dernier test de diagnostic et le dernier traitement rapportés par CNN. Ce type d'accès coûte extrêmement cher, à la fois en frais généraux de construction des installations et d'achat des machines, sans parler du coût des procédures.

Cela ne se produit dans aucun autre pays. Beaucoup de petites villes américaines ont plus d'analyses IRM et PET que toutes les provinces canadiennes. Au Canada et en Angleterre, il existe une liste d'attente pour ces types de tests et ils ne sont souvent pas approuvés car le budget annuel est épuisé.

Nous, les Américains, souhaitons parfois ces tests, même lorsqu'ils ne sont pas jugés nécessaires à une bonne santé. Nous demandons à nos médecins d'éliminer le 1 dans l'événement 10,000. C'est la nature humaine de vouloir le dernier et le meilleur de tout. Mais ce n'est jamais gratuit et ce type de soins médicaux coûte énormément d'argent.

Plus de la moitié des IRM du bas du dos commandés dans deux hôpitaux canadiens étaient inappropriés ou d'une valeur discutable pour les patients - et les médecins de famille étaient plus enclins que les autres spécialistes à commander ces tests inutiles, selon les recherches médicales récemment publiées des équipes de l'Alberta et de l'Ontario.
Les résultats sont importants car, dans certaines régions du pays, les tests IRM pour le bas du dos représentent environ le tiers des demandes IRM. Partout au pays, les temps d'attente pour une IRM sont longs et l'accès des patients est limité.

Les demandes d’IRM du bas du dos sont souvent inutiles: étude

Nos amis au Canada et en Angleterre acceptent le rationnement des services de santé. Les Américains ne donnent aucune indication qu'ils sont disposés à le faire. Regardez le tumulte sur l'IPAB (appelé par certains panels de la mort) dans la loi ACA.

5. le gaspillage de la médecine défensive. En Amérique, il existe un nombre considérable de tests et d'analyses inutiles effectués par un médecin pour couvrir son cul juste en cas de litige. Il est impossible de pratiquer en Amérique sans faire face à la menace d'un procès. Chaque médecin qui répond sincèrement à moi-même et à moi-même admettons avoir commandé des tests de défense.

J'ai constaté des estimations estimées à 600 + milliards de dollars par an grâce à des tests et procédures inutiles effectués principalement pour éviter les litiges. C'est beaucoup d'argent qui pourrait autrement être utilisé pour assurer les personnes non assurées. Les opposants à la réforme délictuelle citent un très petit nombre, car ils n'utilisent que le coût de la défense des poursuites dans leur équation. Mais c'est une goutte d'eau dans le seau comparé à ce que les médecins américains gaspillent pour que personne ne les accusera de "rater quelque chose".

Médecine défensive: un remède pire que la maladie

Amy Bowersox

Amy Bowersox, Citoyen américain de naissance

Mise à jour il y a 247w · Voté par

Amy Chai, MD, médecine interne, épidémiologie et

David Chan, MD de UCLA, bourse de recherche en oncologie de Stanford · L'auteur a des réponses 1.4k et des réponses 4.4m

Réponse d'origine: Pourquoi les coûts des soins de santé aux États-Unis sont-ils si incroyablement élevés?

Jacob VanWagoner a une excellente réponse à cette question; Je voudrais également compléter les raisons qu'il a citées en mettant l'accent sur un domaine de la médecine, celui des médicaments sur ordonnance. Ici aussi, nous constatons une inflation massive des coûts due à la réglementation.

Disons que BigPharmaCo, une société pharmaceutique américaine, propose un nouveau médicament pour traiter la procrastination, Inaminutemomaphine. Le coût de production de ce médicament est de X $ par dose et la société décide qu’un prix approprié pour le médicament, permettant l’amortissement des coûts de R & D, des frais généraux et une marge bénéficiaire équitable, est de Y $, où Y> X.

La République d’Elbonie, qui a un système de santé socialisé, s’adresse à BigPharmaCo et déclare: "Nous aimerions fournir de l’inaminutemomaphine à nos patients, car la procrastination est un problème énorme à Elbonia ... mais nous ne pensons pas que votre Nous préférerions payer $ W par dose plutôt que $ Y ". (Où X <= W égal à X.)

BigPharmaCo a déclaré: "Nous avons déterminé que le Y $ est un prix juste, et que c'est le prix que ce sera."

"Si vous ne le font pas vendez-nous à W $ par dose ", disent les Elboniens," nous allons casser vos brevets et produire le médicament nous-mêmes. Si nous faisons cela, vous obtiendrez rien."

Face à un tel choix, BigPharmaCo accepte de vendre de l'inaminutémomaphine aux Elboniens à raison de $ W par dose. Cela signifie toutefois que, pour compenser les pertes qu’ils subissent là-bas, ils doivent vendre le médicament sur leur marché intérieur (les États-Unis) à Z $ par dose, où Z> Y et fait, Z peut être beaucoup plus grand que Y.

Alors, qu'est-ce qui empêche un patient américain de se rendre à Elbonia et d'y stocker de l'inaminutémomaphine à raison de $ W par dose? Ou peut-être le commander en ligne dans une pharmacie Elbonienne à ce prix? Les entreprises pharmaceutiques ont demandé au Congrès d’adopter une loi explicitement illégal. La raison apparente en était que la pureté et la qualité des médicaments importés de l'extérieur des États-Unis ne correspondaient pas à celles des médicaments américains, ce qui, vu l'état de nombreuses sociétés pharmaceutiques étrangères, notamment en Europe, merde de cheval. La vraie raison est que les sociétés pharmaceutiques américaines protègent leurs marges bénéficiaires.

Voici un exemple concret de ceci: $ 80K Bill Stings Worse Than Scorpion

Dans ce cas, une femme piquée par un écorce de scorpion se voit facturer 39,652 $ par flacon d’antivenin de scorpion utilisé pour la soigner. L’hôpital a acheté l’antivenin pour une fiole à 3,800 $. le exactement la même antivenin, avec les mêmes normes de pureté, est produit et disponible au Mexique au prix de $ 100 un flacon. L’hôpital surpayé pour son sérum antivenimeux par 3,700%, et encore moins ce qu'ils ont réellement accusé la pauvre femme. Cette disparité de prix massive n’existerait pas, à l’exception des protections de monopole inscrites dans la loi ... Les mêmes dispositions qui, si vous deviez aller au Mexique, charger votre coffre d’antivenin de scorpion et le ramener ici, vous auraient probablement aller à prison.

Ceci est juste une des facteurs qui font que les dépenses de santé dans ce pays deviennent hors de contrôle ... et cela entraînera sévère préjudice économique, sinon un complet effondrement économique, si cette tendance n'est pas inversée. (Et non, Loi Obamacare / Abordable Care fait absolument rien l'inverser. ne pas une chose bénie.)

Joh Bhakdi

Joh Bhakdi, PDG de Quantgene. La Fédération de la Sagesse. i2X.

Répondu il y a 139w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 173 et de vues de réponses 1.3m

C'est la mère de toutes les questions. Les États-Unis dépensent environ 70% de plus par habitant que d’autres pays disposant de MEILLEURS soins de santé (en fonction des résultats) comme l’Allemagne, la France, le Canada, etc.

Cela ne signifie pas que ces pays ont des systèmes de santé opérationnels. Fondamentalement, aucun grand pays n'a encore résolu le problème du système de santé. Certains ont rationné, d'autres ont gonflé les prix (comme aux États-Unis).

Le problème

Le problème des États-Unis réside dans le manque de concurrence en matière de prix et de qualité: si un fournisseur de soins de santé propose un rayon X à 1000, et juste à côté, vous obtenez un rayon X à la même qualité, personne ne est au courant et le prix en $ 200 n’aura aucun effet négatif sur la demande. Alors, pourquoi devrait-on jamais baisser les prix?

De même, les résultats ne sont pas comparés. Si, une fois, le traitement de la condition X a un taux de réussite 90% et si un autre endroit obtient 70%, là encore, personne ne le sait. Et encore une fois, il n'y a aucune incitation forte pour la deuxième place à adopter la procédure de la première place.

Cela signifie que le système de santé dans son ensemble est complètement dysfonctionnel en tant que marché. Personne n'est incité à baisser les prix ou à améliorer la qualité du service, mis à part la pudeur humaine et médicale (incitatif très insuffisant).

Ce problème est présent dans tous les systèmes de santé. Mais aux États-Unis, nous répondons à ce problème par une approche de "marché libre" qui permet aux prestataires et aux assurances de se comporter comme s'il y avait un marché en fonctionnement. Les résultats sont le désastre économique que nous voyons aujourd'hui.


Il n'y a que deux solutions possibles à ce problème.

Solution 1 est mis en œuvre dans la plupart des autres pays développés: si le marché libre est dysfonctionnel, ils réagissent par une médecine socialisée: les prix et les services sont dictés par le gouvernement. Cette méthode fonctionne beaucoup mieux qu'une approche de marché libre pour un marché dysfonctionnel, mais présente les inconvénients habituels de la planification centrale (manque d'innovation, rationnement, etc.).

Solution 2 n'a pas encore été tenté: fixer le cadre de marché pour que la mécanique du marché libre fonctionne dans le secteur de la santé. Pour ce faire, nous aurions besoin de marchés centralisés permettant aux patients (et à tous les autres) de voir et de comparer facilement les prix de chaque service médical ou produit disponible; et peut-être même comparer les résultats et la qualité des prestataires et des médecins. L’innovation la plus importante (et négligée) d’Obamacare est peut-être qu’elle ouvre les données gouvernementales aux startups pour permettre ce type de transparence.

Pour que le système fonctionne, il faudra une énorme activité entrepreneuriale (marchés; agrégation de données et accès facile, nouveaux modèles d’assurance). Mais si quelqu'un peut le faire, ce sont les entrepreneurs américains. Si nous en arrivons au point où tous les services médicaux deviennent transparents en termes de prix et de performances et que les assurances deviennent sensibles au prix et aux résultats pour chaque patient, les États-Unis pourraient très rapidement passer du système de soins de santé le plus mauvais au plus efficace au monde. le monde développé.

Marcia Peterson Buckie

Marcia Peterson Buckie, a travaillé chez Medicine and Healthcare

Mise à jour il y a 188w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 7.3k et de vues de réponses 10m

Réponse d'origine: Pourquoi les soins de santé sont-ils si absurdement chers aux États-Unis? Aussi, pourquoi le processus de consultation de spécialistes est-il si ridiculement compliqué?

Il y a beaucoup de facteurs:

1) Médicaments sur ordonnance: les lois antitrust américaines interdisent au gouvernement de contrôler le prix des médicaments. Pour des médicaments coûteux, je me suis rendu à quelques minutes de 30 à Windsor, en Ontario, et j'ai pris des médicaments pour 50 pour cent de moins. (Mon mari est pharmacien et a facilement accès aux comparaisons de prix)

Beaucoup de marketing ajoute également au prix des médicaments, bien que la législation et la politique hospitalière limitent désormais le nombre de publicités, de cadeaux et de sponsors de conférences.


C’est intéressant, mon mari est un pharmacien aux États-Unis. Les compagnies pharmaceutiques embauchent rarement des pharmaciens aux États-Unis, et leur licence les oblige à adhérer à un code de déontologie qui pourrait ne pas être avantageux pour l’entreprise pharmaceutique. Tandis que son grand-père était un pharmacien (chimiste) au Royaume-Uni et a travaillé comme représentant pour ICI pendant de nombreuses années.

2) "Traiter l'assurance au lieu du patient" Souvent, les personnes ayant une bonne assurance ont des procédures et des services inutiles ou définitivement inutiles, qui leur sont recommandés ou qui leur sont facturés. Je suis passé d’un travail où j’avais beaucoup de patients sous réanimation de soins intensifs et insuffisamment assurés, et j’ai dû limiter ce que je pouvais fournir malgré un besoin évident. Ensuite, j’ai été dans un hôpital avec un «mélange de payeurs plus souhaitable» et je Mes superviseurs ont souvent fait pression sur eux pour qu’ils gardent le nombre de cas à mon charge, car ils ne pensaient pas avoir besoin des services, car «leur assurance les couvrait».

Oncologue Otis Brawley, MD Couvre la pratique de la sur-traitement des patients atteints de cancer dans son livre "How we do harm"

3) Augmentation de la durée de vie. Sur les unités néonatales et dans les maisons de retraite. L'augmentation du nombre de micro-bébés accouchés s'est traduite par une augmentation du nombre d'enfants ayant des besoins médicaux permanents et coûteux. (Je ne discute pas contre cela, mais c'est un facteur que nous ne pouvons pas ignorer.) La durée de vie moyenne a considérablement augmenté. Qu'il s'agisse de l'assurance-maladie, de Medicaid ou de l'assurance privée, tout cela est répercuté sur les coûts, que ce soit aux contribuables ou aux détenteurs de polices d'assurance privées.

Qu'est-ce qui rend le système de santé américain si coûteux? Pourquoi les États-Unis sont-ils si chers par rapport au Canada?

Les unités de soins intensifs restent entre 3, 000 et 10, dollars 000 par jour (un ventilateur mécanique augmente les coûts)


4) Traiter les soins de santé en tant qu’entreprise ou les considérer comme un bien / service public avec une analyse scientifique fondée sur des preuves

5) Toutes les avancées et les inventions technologiques médicales ne sont pas bonnes. Parfois, un travail de vente astucieux signifie qu'une nouvelle pièce d'équipement doit être approuvée, puis utilisée plus souvent que jamais.

L'attente selon laquelle il ne faut jamais attendre d'imagerie non suspensive telle que l'IRM signifie qu'il y a plus d'IRM, ce qui signifie que davantage d'installations doivent supporter le coût de la concurrence avec l'hôpital situé dans la rue qui possède un IRM, un robot de chirurgie DaVinci, etc. est transmis aux consommateurs de soins de santé et aux tiers payeurs.

6) Les soins de santé coûtent cher, car le pain quotidien des soins de santé ne peut être remplacé par des machines ou des technologies. Le plus gros pourcentage des coûts de soins de santé concerne les êtres humains. Infirmières auxiliaires, femmes de ménage, transporteurs, infirmières, thérapeutes, médecins de diverses spécialités

Ils ont besoin de salaires et sont attirés par des avantages tels que les congés payés et l'assurance maladie. Il y a une pénurie critique d'infirmière auxiliaire, qui est un travail exigeant et historiquement peu rémunéré (environ 10-12 par heure) et un taux de roulement élevé est synonyme de coûts.

Vous ne pouvez pas surcharger les pharmaciens, les infirmières, les médecins, etc. sans que cela entraîne épuisement professionnel, stress, erreurs, retournement, etc. Le roulement du personnel, les blessures des employés et les erreurs coûtent de l'argent. Mais souvent, les administrateurs sont économes en dollars et stupides. L'équilibre budgétaire à court terme n'annule pas la vérité de l'axiome: la qualité est rentable.

7) L’absence de communication entre les établissements privés signifie une duplication des services et des procédures. L’initiative sur l’utilisation significative prend en compte ce problème, mais la mise en œuvre de la technologie est coûteuse.


8) Une population (parfois) plus scolarisée de patients / famille. Internet signifie qu'il existe des communautés de patients et des ressources sur lesquelles les patients font des recherches lorsqu'ils ont un problème de santé. Mais parfois, les gens n’ont pas de bonnes informations, nous savons tous à quel point la science est mauvaise. Ainsi, les patients / parents demandent et plaident pour des choses qui ne sont pas efficaces, voire nuisibles.

La prescription excessive d'antibiotiques et la question des vaccins en sont des exemples.

La surutilisation d'antibiotiques coûte des milliards de dollars américains

(Les patients demandent souvent aux médecins de prescrire des antibiotiques pour des médicaments qui s'améliorent avec le temps. Cela fait également partie de notre offre de viande industrielle. Entre autres facteurs, cela a entraîné une augmentation du nombre de super punaises pouvant résister à la vie et résistantes aux antibiotiques.)

9) Difficulté à obtenir et à payer une assurance santé mentale. Il existe depuis longtemps un corps entier de recherches médicales selon lesquelles, lorsque les problèmes de santé mentale sont correctement traités, la santé physique / médicale est susceptible d'être meilleure. Mais nous sommes à une époque de productivité élevée des travailleurs, de qualité de vie inférieure, de la plus faible période de temps libre dans le monde occidental et de groupes d’assurances et même de membres du monde médical minimisant l’importance des services de santé mentale.

une amélioration: la loi sur la parité en matière de santé mentale: obliger les assureurs à traiter les services de santé mentale / psychiatrie ambulatoire de la même manière que les visites chez le médecin de premier recours.



10. Les conséquences économiques de la résistance à la couverture contraceptive et aux subventions sont assez convaincantes.



Du blog du NYT:

La récente controverse sur contraception et l'assurance maladie a concentré sur qui devrait payer pour la pilule. Mais il existe une foule de preuves économiques sur la valeur de la pilule - aux contribuables, écrit mon collègue Motoko Rich, ainsi qu’aux femmes en général.
En effet, comme l'économiste Betsey Stevenson a noté, de nombreuses études ont montré qu'en permettant aux femmes de retarder le mariage et la maternité, la pilule les aidait également à investir dans leurs compétences et leur éducation, à intégrer le marché du travail en plus grand nombre, à accéder à des professions à statut plus élevé et mieux rémunérées, plus d'argent sur tout.
Un de études les plus influentes et fréquemment citées Claudia Goldin et Lawrence F. Katz sont à l'origine de l'impact de la pilule sur la vie des femmes. Les deux économistes de Harvard font valoir que la pilule offrait aux femmes «beaucoup plus de certitude quant aux conséquences du sexe sur la grossesse». Cela «réduit le coût de l'investissement dans une carrière à long terme», permettant aux femmes de terminer leurs études secondaires ou d'aller au collège, , plutôt que de s'installer.


Le point ici est simple. Bien que le contrôle des naissances coûte plus que rien, il coûte moins cher qu'un avortement et beaucoup moins que d'avoir un bébé. D'un point de vue social, à moins de ne pas subventionner la consommation de services de soins de santé (ce qui constituerait un changement radical par rapport au statu quo), il est donc tout à fait logique de subventionner massivement les contraceptifs. Bien sûr, parfois, le plan d’action économiquement rationnel (tuer tout le monde en Alberta et voler son pétrole) est immoral (tuer, c’est mal) et, par conséquent, nous ne le faisons pas. Mais rien que les dollars et les centimes qui subventionnent le contrôle des naissances est une évidence. Ce qui est malheureux, c’est que, dans le contexte américain, le principe de la subsidiarité devait être transmis à l’employeur, ce qui a ouvert la voie à cette controverse.

Je pense que le mandat de contrôle des naissances était l’une des politiques économiques les plus saines du pays. Mais la possibilité pour les employeurs d’obtenir des exemptions signifie que l’assurance liée à l’emploi n’est pas un moyen réalisable de mettre en œuvre un système de contraception subventionné.

Ensuite, il y a le fait qu'un grand pourcentage de femmes qui utilisent les DIU et les contraceptifs oraux les utilisent pour traiter des conditions médicales.


Eugene Lazutkin

Eugene Lazutkin, Développeur de logiciels

Mise à jour il y a 19w

Réponse d'origine: Pourquoi les États-Unis dépensent-ils beaucoup plus par personne en soins médicaux que les autres pays développés et obtiennent des résultats pires en moyenne?

Les autres réponses sont bonnes, mais laissez-moi vous présenter le point de vue d’un homme ordinaire. Autres détails: Je suis un développeur de logiciels, qui a travaillé avec des startups et individuellement. Bien que je sois clairement dans la minorité, je crois que je représente l’avenir de la main-d’œuvre américaine. Je suis le plus habitué avec une assurance maladie PPO, certaines personnes préfèrent HMO. Bien qu’il s’agisse de formes très différentes d’assurance maladie, la différence pertinente pour notre discussion réside principalement dans la manière dont les finances sont gérées et dans une paperasse visible.

1) Assurance employeur.

D'autres ont souligné qu'il s'agissait d'un artefact de WW2. Le vrai problème ici est que les petites entreprises, les startups, les entrepreneurs individuels constituent le noyau dur de l’économie américaine. Ils créent la plupart des nouveaux emplois, ils proposent de nouvelles idées, mais ils ne peuvent pas se permettre de fournir une assurance maladie. Seules les grandes / moyennes entreprises peuvent le faire. La plus petite entreprise est, le plus petit bassin d'employés, la pire assurance santé est: moins de couverture, des primes plus élevées, plus cher tout.

Si vous voulez vous essayer au démarrage ou faire quelque chose par vous-même, vous avez le choix entre:

a) Utilisez une assurance de votre conjoint, qui devrait travailler pour une entreprise qui fournit une assurance santé familiale.
b) Utilisez votre assurance précédente: selon la loi, vous pouvez utiliser votre ancienne assurance pendant 18, plusieurs mois après la résiliation, pour payer l'intégralité de votre coût (sans parrainage de la société).
c) Essayez de trouver une assurance par vous-même. Jusqu'à il y a plusieurs années, c'était presque impossible pour différentes raisons.
d) Bravez sans assurance. Généralement pas un choix pour les gens de la famille. Pas un bon choix même pour les jeunes célibataires en bonne santé.

Notez que je ne parle même pas des pauvres. Je suppose simplement que vous pouvez vous permettre les options #b et #c.

(Parfois, les gens me disent que je me trompe, par exemple: "Je travaille pour une entreprise de personnes 20 et ils ont une assurance". Oui, mais est-ce une bonne? De nombreuses petites entreprises fournissent une assurance à un coût exorbitant sans parrainage. J'avais l'habitude de payer 2k / mois dans la plupart des petites entreprises de petite taille ayant une couverture minimale, même les entreprises elles-mêmes ne le recommandent pas et ne l'utilisent pas comme outil de recrutement.)

Travaillant pour des startups et en tant qu'entrepreneur individuel, je devais faire tout ce qui précède. Je devais choisir les grandes entreprises plutôt que les petites entreprises

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

Dylan McDanniel

Dylan McDanniel, CEO and founder at Lexo Media Group (2011-present)

Répondu il y a 31w

Most Chinese perceive their country, its citizens and all related issues on a much longer timeline than other cultures. They are thinking in terms of hundreds or even thousands of years. Their culture is five thousand years old. I think this long history and understanding of the twists and turns of time have given the Chinese a more unified and strategic way of operating in the world.

As an American, it’s interesting to think about this relative to my own culture, where most people I know focus on the next 30 days. Most Americans think of the Chinese government as “Commies.” My take is that with a population of 1.5 billion people, the only way to achieve 100 year goals of being a superpower and dominating the world’s economy was to centralize all economic and governance needs under one entity, which would allow rapid ascent via currency management, centralized investment in infrastructure, complete control of the education system, and other practices.

China is now poised to be the most powerful and important nation in the world for the next 300 years. IMHO, it will not remain a communist regime for very much longer. It’s already *dramatically* changed from 20 years ago.

So, the thing most people miss is that China is playing the long game. And doing it well.

Sourin Paturi

Sourin Paturi, Observer of a new millenium

Répondu il y a 31w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 94 et de vues de réponses 291.7k

China is the 21st century version of the 19th century United States.

China and the United States could be no truer than polar opposites in their outlook and backgrounds as nations, yet the China of today eerily resembles that of the United States in the 1800’s. Mark my words if these trends prove true we can await a Chinese century in the 21st century.

Police étrangère:

In regards to foreign policy, China is exerting itself and attempting to create a sphere of influence in Eastern Asia. This has been prompted by their ever growing aggressiveness in the South China Sea and surrounding waters. China is attempting to create its own “playground” akin to how the U.S treated Latin America as its “playground” by bullying local nations and exerting immense influence on its politics.

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

The South China Sea is China’s Caribbean. Look no further as China begins to act more and more aggressive years to come. Slowly it will start to resemble this:

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

Chinese Attitude:

It goes without saying that the United States and China are two different ideologies with the former focusing on Western individualism and the latter on Eastern Collectivism. Peeling back these layers reveal an uncomfortable truth — the growing superiority complex by many Chinese. We can agree that China has enough to be proud of, yet the idea that China is fulfilling a undue destiny is ringing eerie bells to “Manifest Destiny”. The Chinese have been reinvigorated by patriotism as they are once again are seeing their nation as the center of Asia. They are seeing it as their duty to reclaim Chinese glory and to drive away and diminish the West’s power.

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

Manifest Destiny - destiny of coast to coast

Chinese Industrialization:

Lastly, I’d like to highlight just how China has managed to turn into an economic juggernaut. The manufacturing industry has played a big part in this rise and just like America — China is using industry and innovation to move ahead. America during the 1800’s was a place of innovation with new inventions and a growing manufacturing industry and produced many goods for the world. Compare this to China nowadays which is following the same path with a growth scientific renaissance in China prompted by the supremacy of China in the manufacturing department.

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

American manufacturing in heyday of manufacturing power

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

Today’s Chinese manufacturing

China and the United States are more similar than many might realize — by the endeavors they took to get to the top of the world.

Sevak M

Sevak M

Répondu il y a 31w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 328 et de vues de réponses 378.9k

Long, long ago… so long ago… I actually do remember how long ago… I was shopping at a Walmart (don't judge). And I was shocked to find practically everything sold at the Walmart was made in China!

Till that point in time, I had very little knowledge of China. As I continued being a shopper in the US, I started to realize that practically everything sold in the US was made in China! Most American stores - Walmart, Target, container store, bed bath and beyond, Apple, etc - were merely sales outlets for Chinese products.

I would sing praises of China, while my Indian and American friends would calm me down by saying that the US only gets low-end, cheap stuff made in China, while the higher quality stuff comes out of US, Japan, Taiwan, Europe (mostly automobiles).

So, I posed a question… how long before China takes over all production, and becomes the sole manufacturer of the world? And all my friends said… “M, you are crazy!”

Barely a few eons have passed since that question and China is indeed the only manufacturer in the world. Today, everything from your iPhone to your MacBook Pro to your watch (all very high end consumer goods, by American standards… and therefore, the world's standards) to your clothes, shoes, socks, undergarments, and Gore Tex jackets and your kitchen appliances and your house decor to your house doors and windows… and everything else is manufactured in China!

In many ways, my observation that China would become the world's sole manufacturer of all goods - low end or high end - has come true.

My European friends like to remind me that nobody does automobiles better than them. My take: wait till 2030, when you will find that China will not only be the largest manufacturer of high quality automobiles, but some of Europe's top auto brands - like BMW, Benz, Porsche, Lamborghini, Ferrari, etc - would be owned and managed by the Chinese. Note: Volvo, the quintessential “safe” automobile brand, from Europe, is already owned by the Chinese.

My American friends, now, quickly retort that the US is still superior to China in anything to do with war machines - assault rifles, drones, fighter jets, naval carriers, etc. I hate to say this out loud, but mark my words… China will be the largest “designer and manufacturer” of all high end war machines by 2050. I wouldn't be surprised if LMCO and others are relegated to pages of history, or survive as China owned brands.

I wouldn't be surprised if, by 2100, 99% of the world becomes mere consumers, while China becomes the sole producer and supplier to all those consumers.

In fact, by 2100, I wouldn't be surprised if Chinese, rather than English, becomes the most preferred human language.

An anecdote: sometime in the 2005 +/- a few years/decades/eons… I was in Hong Kong, attending a trade show.

You see, back then, I was relatively young and naive, so my mind would be abuzz with ideas… for gadgets that I wanted, but the world (probably) didn't have.

So I wanted to make this box, and it had a lot of electronics in it. I spoke with a few of my American friends and one of them agreed to design it for me… for equity. I spoke with a few of my friends in India, and they said they had extensive experience doing multi-layer PCB design, routing and placement, etc… but they wanted (sheets load of) money upfront, and regular payments there after, because Indians only work on the outsourcing model!

A voice deep inside me said… “go East, young man!”

Out of the blue, I found out about this trade show in Hong Kong… so I booked a flight ticket and just went there. Not only did I fall in love with Hong Kong, I met more manufacturers than I would have ever wanted to! All the manufacturers at that trade show were from China. And they were all very welcoming!

“Send us your design, we make 50 units first and ship them to you, then if you like, you place large order. 1000 units minimum for large order.” Nobody asked for equity or upfront payments! They understood what I wanted done. They knew all the certifications the product would need. And they had questions about the product that I didn't have answers to!

The Chinese were smart, intelligent, professional and utterly polite!

15 of those companies gave me “letter of invitation”, along with their brochures, inviting me to visit their sites (plants) in China.

As always, I didn't pursue the opportunity completely… so nothing came out of it. But I ended up realizing that China was destined to be the largest and the best manufacturer of the world!

I do firmly believe that by 2100, China will be the strongest and most powerful (and possibly the only) industrial economy in the world. By 2100 China will be the only “designer and manufacturer” of products in the world.

I strongly feel that this is not the Chinese century… this is just the beginning of the second coming of China, and China will have a stronger and more powerful impact on the world this time, for a long, long time to come.

(NOTE: typed on my Chinese phone. I will reformat the answer later, when I get to my Chinese laptop, sitting on a Chinese table, and connected to a China made power strip.

BTW, it's early morning here in India, so I have a small Chinese lamp - photo attached - in my room!)

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

Those Beats headsets you see there - they are original Beats, and they were also made in China!)

I hope China makes the most of this fantastic opportunity the world is handing it.

Henry Leung

Henry Leung

Répondu il y a 2w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 94 et de vues de réponses 312.6k

Might not be missed, but rather not considered.

Chinese nationalism runs FAR deeper than the efforts of the CCP.

A common misconception among many others is that the nationalism in China and its rise is solely the fault of the CCP. Common among those who dislike China is the belief that the only reason why the relations between China and the said country is bad is because of historical revisionism by the CCP that arouses extreme nationalism. For example, s I have seen some people that blaming the historical issues of the Sino-Japanese War solely on PRC China, even doubting the Nanjing Massacre.

Perhaps even more alarming, is the belief that if China is under ROC rule such nationalism would not have developed.

I strongly disagree with this observation, because although the CCP has a huge influence on nationalism, Chinese nationalism has a much stronger grip on China than the CCP’s efforts. In fact, contrary to popular viewpoints, the CCP often times actually actively suppresses nationalistic sentiment in China.

To put it in another way, if an alternative political power (democratic or not) is in charge of China and wants to promote nationalism among the public, it could mostly likely succeed and achieve the same amount of effect as under CCP China.

Now, the following sentences will surely cause me to have some comments like “stop blaming the foreign countries for you failures China!” or “CCP pig.” Now, for this one, I don’t give a bloody nickel because I am not here to satisfy your narrative.

The main issue is that many others overestimated the effect of PRC propaganda machine. The CCP might promote and try to present their version of history, but they are successful not because of their all-controlling presence but because a large foundation for nationalism is already there. As many Chinese had pointed out before, the Chinese propaganda machine is very ineffective in enforcing narrative. That means, nationalistic narrative has a huge chance to not be a product of CCP propaganda.

Here is a thing, many things in the Western hemisphere including the democratic governmental system is viewed with support by the Chinese before 2008. It took the financial crisis, la anti-Chinese actions in the Olympic torch relay on Tibet issues et foreign portrayal of terrorists attacks on China to strengthen Chinese nationalism again (AKA saying the attacks are the results “suppression of rights” as if the Chinese have no right in being “free from being attacked by terrorists”.) The period between 2000–2008, Chinese nationalism is not as strong as today despite CCP promotion of narrative including denouncing KMT’s effort in the Sino-Japanese War.

Now, so why Chinese nationalism runs deeper than CCP?

Because of the past history of Modern China.

Nationalism is easily fostered if the nation suffers badly for sometime, especially if a foreign power took adantage and harmed the said nation in return.

The Opium Wars

The First Sino-Japanese War

The Scramble for Concessions

The Eight Power Expedition

The Second Sino-Japanese War

Bombing of the Chinese Embassy in the Yugoslavia.

Yinhe incident - in which a Chinese vessel was forcibly seized on the basis of carrying chemical weapons by US military (which was proven to be wrong) but the US refused to apologize for this mistake.

I did not mention other incidents since they would just be considered as CCP propaganda.

What all these incidents have in common - they are situations in which China suffered by the actions of a foreign power. Those times, the Chinese people had witnessed how their sovereignty had been compromised forcibly by others.

The worse thing? Some continued to justify those actions are good, like some die-hard Japanese right-wing people still think that the war on China is for the liberation of Asia from the west despite killing so many Chinese in an inhumane manner (justifying that the Chinese are not human and deserved to die just because they refused to surrender - the Three ALL policy). You don’t like China to justify their territorial “expansions” (protection of sovereignty in Chinese viewpoint), well then I am sure you are so exceptional that justifying attacks on China is not a crime.

These incidents contribute to a huge foundation in nationalism. In fact, Chinese nationalism is a banner under Sun Yat-sen due to the long period of imperialism in China. (Three People’s Principles included Nationalism)

Therefore, let’s assume that the CCP wants to promote nationalism among China, it doesn’t ’t have to invent some narrative or some stories. Just bring up these events and most Chinese people will become nationalists. Better yet, if the CCP allowed free internet flow and see how some people continued to justify those events (opening up China to modernity, liberating China, for democracy or freedom), just imagine the anger.

Even if a democratic government came into power, should they want to tap into nationalism they would also have the same foundation to construct their nationalistic narrative.

So in a sense, ironically the CCP is the main force in preventing Chinese nationalism from going out of control. And some might interpret me as blaming the foreigners, but those actions in the past against China could not be undone so easily. The result is that the Chinese people are not receptive to any nation attempting to use hard-line measures against China, because the past memories of how military force was used to harm China would instantly start a fire. Therefore, the more the nation attempt to use forceful measures against China, regardless if it is economic or geopolitical conflicts, the more likely the Chinese would turn to support the CCP, not the other war around.

“Never again” is so strong with the Chinese. You might have disagreements with China, but using force will likely to backfire and ironically strengthen the support for CCP. All because of nationalism.

Katie Pedro

Katie Pedro, Directeur régional des ressources humaines APAC chez Marvell Semiconductors (2018-present)

Répondu il y a 30w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 728 et de vues de réponses 1.1m

China is a true multicultural country but many foreigners don't see. Multiculture does not equate to multi race, nor multi ethnicity. Although we are 90% Han Chinese (actually Han Chinese are genetically diverse), but our culture from region to region are very different. By culture I don't mean only food and dialect. There are also deep cultural differences such as value system and culture tradition. I have spent 4 years at southern Fujian province. Still I don't get the culture. Don't know more than few words, don't understand their tradition, don't understand their gender expectation, and don't buy into their value system. The southern Fujian culture is more remote to me than Canada. I have friends from inland city of Changsha, Hunan province, and Yanji, where most Korean-Chinese are living. The life they described to me are so unheard of that I actually got culture shock all the time. The traditional way of living is also different. For example, some provinces practice dowry (the girl family will give assets to the girl when married), some province is the opposite (the boy's family give money to the bride's family). Some province still have active clan activities, even clan loans to the member family. People from Northeast provinces are so different from Southern Chinese, say, Chao-Shan region that I can immediately tell who is from where accurately. I do not mean only the look and the language, but also their way of thinking, right or wrong, and their way of interacting. Language wise a small town 300km away from Shanghai speaks a language I totally don't understand.

However, Chinese people's identity is separate from culture and the value system. Even with multiculturalism and different value system, all are identify themselves as Chinese. And there is no argument on who is true Chinese. Some say different value system will divide people. It is not the case in China.

This is the reason Chinese care very little about foreign residents to assimilate, where assimilation is a demand in many other countries.

Another one is that the reason Chinese look homogeneous is because the Chinese care much less about keeping the race pure. We generally believe interracial marriage is a good thing (after cleared that the daily habit will not be an issue). The offspring of interracial or inter-ethnicity are smarter and prettier (I don't think it is a scientific support though, just a belief). People intermarry freely, created a total mix of bloodline. That's why any foreign traders or invaders came to China ended up disappeared into Chinese.

Lastly, Chinese traditional culture value change. The conventional wisdom is change is a good thing: Flowing water will never rot (流水不腐). People like to change and activly looking for changes to make, even at that time when things are going well. I found it is different in Europeans and North Americans who I know of. People don't like to change (their way of living).

Sam Arora

Sam Arora, Life long student of Chinese history, culture, food, arts

Répondu il y a 30w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 2.1k et de vues de réponses 8.9m

I am born and brought up in Hindu faith. However, I have friends in every religion. My Muslim friend told me this story, and I want to share it with you.

He said: In a Mosque, the learned man called two guys, A and B.

He instructed A: Please go and wander around the world and you are taught to see only the good things in the world.

He instructed B: Please go and wander around the world and you are taught to see only the bad things in the world.


He further instructed to come back after one year and report back to me.

After a year the learned man calls A in front of the audience and asks him to describe his trip and observations,

Does he represent only good things, the learned man asked anything terrible?

He (A) said: None, I only concentrated on the right things.

The learned man asked B: He described only bad things and confirmed he did not see anything useful.

Moral of the story: We only see what we are wired for, our circuits are set and just reconfirming our preconceived ideas.

Well : Like A here in this story, I vowed I only see good things in China and the Chinese and adopt if I can to make my life more meaningful.

  • Thank you China/the Chinese, I did learn a lot from your day to day life, without complaints like: The river flowing non stop, just doing its job, or Sun rising and setting as per the its Karama. In my view, no body uttered any a word about Karam Yog, of the Chinese. I believe the Chinese are unique and they know the message of God.

I traveled with various personalities, and we all had a different view.

Let me explain to you what I saw:

The Chinese are right Karam Yogi, and they found the true meaning of God.

Almost all the Chinese are pure Karam Yogis, although they all claim they are atheists I know they are not.

Karma yoga, also called Karma marga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism, one based on the "yoga of action". ... It is one of the ways in the religious practices of Hindus, others being Raja **yoga**, Jnana **yoga** (path of knowledge) and Bhakti yoga (path of loving devotion to a personal god).

>True karma yogis - Google Search (True karma yogis - Google Search)

Karma yoga - Wikipedia

There are various ways to reach God, one is through Actions, and the Chinese in my view are True Karam Yogis.

During my several tours through China, and working within Canada in various capacities, I have not seen one lazy Chinese, who are not disciplined, whose Yin and Yang are out of balance.

Karam Yog also teaches :

  • Family unity, your duty to provide for the family, look after your family.
  • Obey law and order.
  • Respect women and children.
  • Respect elders.
  • Respectez vos professeurs.
  • Respect your ancestors.
  • In my view after working with almost every nationality in the World, Chinese work ethics is one of the very best.

The Chinese may not be perfect, but that is as good as it gets.

I cannot comment on their sexual purity because I do not know.

  • I believe Chinese marriages are stable, and so far divorce rate is far lower than rest of the world, or it is one of the lowest.

In view, this is a thing no one pointed out, during my several trips and more on the go, I tried to connect the dots. And I confirmed the Chinese had found God through Karam Yog.

In my view once the whole race follows this habit without even knowing it I believe they have found true message of God.

The proof is in the pudding: A country which was on the brink of collapse, with their Karam Yog, they rebuilt a nation in 70 short years. I do not know about others but I am a believer, that what my Lord told me in my Hindu scripture, it is whole truth nothing but truth. Karam yog is indeed on way to reach God, He clearly said in the Bhagavad Gita, you want to reach Me, you can through hard work. There is no need to go to temple/jungles/do rituals/simply do your Karama and you will find prosperity. And break the cycle of suffering once for all.

Karma yoga, also called Karma marga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism, one based on the "yoga of action". ... It teaches that a spiritual seeker should act selon to dharma, without being attached to the fruits or personal consequences. Karma Yoga, states the Bhagavad Gita, purifies the mind.

bhagavad gita - Google Search

This is reconfirmation of my belief and I have seen it with own eyes. Yes indeed Karam yog does work.

These are not the only three examples: The whole China is full of such examples,

These three examples : The guy has useless legs, but he is Karam Yogi, doing the best what ever is left of him, to make a living by playing flute.


Guy does not have hands but playing Mouth Organ to make a living,

The other guy does not have a compete leg but doing the best he can what ever is left of him.

Fourth me: I am doing my Karama, taking care of my two grand sons, I want to provide what was denied to me, and I could not provide to my sons. My total focus are my two precious grand kids.

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

Second thing I believe I noticed and what others missed it in China:

Preserving the past:

I have not seen the whole world, but I must admit China could be one of the top civilization preserving its past. And learning from it, there is no shortage of Museums in China. And I strongly believe one life or several lives may not enough to see each and every artifacts which are preserved for thousands of years.

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

Third thing other may have missed but I may have registered it: Preserving their culture not only through artifacts but through dramatization.

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

I believe fourth thing I concentrated was care of the Children:

I truly believe Children are very well cared for, others may have missed this but what I saw were very happy, rosy cheek and giggling children. They in general were well dressed according to the weather, in general seems to be very healthy.

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

What observation have you made about China which most others missed?

Pourquoi l’Italie est-elle plus pauvre et sous-développée que d’autres pays européens?

Francesco Belladonna

Francesco Belladonna, lives in Vancouver, BC (2016-present)

Mise à jour il y a 44w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 68 et de vues de réponses 363.2k

I am an Italian citizen who recently changed country, because I could not stand it anymore.

People think/pretend that Italy is a functional, “first world” country. I’m not sure what stats are gathered around or how this is happening, but I’ll give you a picture of the real situation, or how people “feel” like living in Italy.

All this information is related to Rome (where I lived 27 years), so there are definitely places where you can live better and where things work. Still, Italy has 2 major metropolises, and Rome is the biggest and the most messed up of all.

In Italy there are very high taxes. This is not “bad” by itself, except that they “disappear” or are not used properly, so in the end, you don’t get the services you paid for.

Soins de santé

Healthcare is “free” in Italy, that’s one of their major selling points. The reality is that it is so “broken”, that you cannot rely on it. Waiting times are so high (8–12 months) for most of the tests that people have to rely on private healthcare, even though they pay for public.

My wife’s aunt has a breast cancer. She had to fight hard to get refunds for all the tests she doivent undergo every month (the government did not want to refund anything). I do not remember clear details (this discussion happened 2 years ago), but she still has to pay some costly monthly bills (300–500€), which are not refunded.

If you are pregnant, you have to pay for all the various bills related to pregnancy.

My wife’s mother had a problem with her knee due to osteoporosis and her meeting with doctor was scheduled one year from the day she requested to meet one. The diagnosis was that she has heavy osteoporosis. If you have a cancer, you bet you are going to die by the time doctor visits you.

This problem is spread around the whole country - it is not limited to Rome (various people I know, from various parts of Italy, are facing the same problem).

Rent & Salary

Average rent for 1 bedroom apartment in Rome is 700€. Most people I know don’t earn more than 1200€ (net, 2400€ gross) per month, if they have a job at all. Which means over 50% of your salary will go toward rent. Most of the people I know are software developers, as soon as you get out of Italy the salary doubles or triples for that kind of job. If you want a 2 bedroom, you are going to have a hard time.

The salary problem is spread through whole country. It’s well known that no matter where you work, as soon as you get out of Italy your salary will double. Funny is that even companies that have their base in Europe and hire through whole EU lower their salaries for people in Italy, even though the exact same job in the same company is paid twice as much in other European countries.

Offres d'Emploi

There is an insane lack of jobs in Italy. People don’t even understand how bad is the situation. I’m relatively young (28) and more than half of my friends can’t find a job (well, you can find illegal jobs for 500€/month, so no tax declaration). My wife is a mechanical engineer and couldn’t find a job in the field (she did find one but was paid poorly with toxic company culture). A friend of my wife drives trucks, he has a mechanical engineering degree and “specialization” (university is 3 years + 2 years of specialization in Italy) but couldn’t find any job in the field. And these are just some examples. This problem is spread through the entire country and doesn’t seem to improve.

Transport public

Public transportation in Rome is completely broken (I’ve heard it’s broken for most of Italy, but I have no way to verify that). Average wait time for a bus is 45 minutes and during rush hour the bus is full. This translates into the fact that you can’t get on the bus because it’s too full. Now let me be clear, when I say full I’m saying that every single inch of the bus is full, not full in a “reasonable way”.

The subway is so badly developed that it rains inside:

This is from 2017.
The new section of subway, called Metro C has been developed since 2007, part of it opened, but it’s not yet complete (10 years).

During the weekend, the buses are further reduced. Since I was born the rule was “don’t try to get bus on weekend, you won’t go anywhere”. You can easily wait 1 hour and a half for bus to come.


Currently there is garbage everywhere. It’s collected “sometimes”, this is due to mafia being in control of the garbage collection company. There are giant rats wandering around the city center now.

septembre 2017


So, you are kind of forced to use your car, unless you want to waste an average of 2 hours per day for transportation.
How’s the street in Rome?
Rome is famous in all Italy for the trous in the street. I’m not talking about a minor problem:

Pourquoi l’Italie est-elle plus pauvre et sous-développée que d’autres pays européens?

All the streets are covered with it. People using motorbikes stopped using them because it turned too dangerous going around. My sister fell into a giant hole in the middle of the street, which broke the front of the scooter she was using.


It’s famous because in Italy around 50% of your earnings goes to government. Where this money goes, no one knows (well, we clearly know it goes to mafia, but it’s hard to “define” mafia in a country where it’s in control of the government itself), the fact is that we don’t have any service that we are supposed to, and the cost of life is high.

I was shocked when I arrived in Canada and discovered that all pregnancy related tests are free, and that to get your blood tested is free and the average wait time is 10 minutes, with results delivered the next day through internet.

So why Italy is poorer? Because half of the money it earns disappears in corruption. There are some high-level products, but the production is moving outside of the country due to high taxes, further reducing the overall country income.

Filiberto Amati

Filiberto Amati, Italian from the South, living abroad since 1997

Mise à jour il y a 38w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 412 et de vues de réponses 276.8k

Italy is poorer from a GDP pro capita standpoint, poorer than countries like Netherlands, UK, Germany, Austria or Luxembourg. Nevertheless, according to Bloomberg, Italy is the healthiest world country (Italy’s Struggling Economy Has World’s Healthiest People), so the picture is not really that dark.

But why there are differences?

  • Tout d'abord le Italians need to blame someone. Most answers from Italians to this Quora question will mention the problem of Midi, the southern region, which is eventually slowing the development of the whole country. The simple truth: in every country in Europe (and even in the US) there are regions which are several times more productive than other. Every single country in Europe has a “Mezzogiorno” region but only in Italy seems to slow down the whole economy. Why? Because we need to blame someone, and southerners are a good group to take the blame for Italian troubles.
  • L'Italie est a victim of its own success. We were mostly créatif, entrepreneurial et entraîné. The industries which are still very strong are the ones which are creative, entrepreneurial and driven. Because they kept delivering relevant and breakthrough innovation and innovative ideas. But in many traditional sectors, which are key to employment and economic development, we are not investing nor innovating: automobile et heavy industrial sectors are less and less relevant on a global scale (except for industrial which relates to design, like tiles, lighting, textiles,…), tourisme (great and beautiful country but horror stories pop-up everywhere, highest churn rate in Europe in the travel sector) even in the nourriture sector, we are really not innovating.
  • The push for urbanization has created a double incrimination: industrial cities are growing in an unhealthy matter, and in a way they cannot sustain employment. While at the same time less and less people are willing to work in agriculture and farming: with a very large unemployment rate, Italian farming and agricultural sectors in the North need to employee foreign labor force because of lack of interest from locals (in Emilia Romagna, there is plenty of Romanians and Bulgarians working in the fields, tough jobs which the Italians do not want).
  • Italians depend on foreign Energy sources, which is an effect of the lack of focus on important elements of economic development.
  • Because of the high level of government debt, a lot of cuts to critical infrastructures have been done in the past 30 years. Motorways, airports, harbors are often old and not technologically advanced.
  • Les level of bureaucracy is unbelievable. Starting and maintaining a business is incredible. The level of indirect taxes and the complexity of their functioning make it nearly impossible to save or even invest. If you own an apartment for rent, you will pay a registration tax (which is equivalent of one month rent) for every contract, then property and income taxes. With the property taxes that you need to calculate your self on the basis of a multi-variable equation (which basically means you hire an accountant not to get the amount wrong)
  • Courts are slow. To give you an idea, in 2014 I was notified as living descendant of a court case that my grand-mother (who died in 1990) had started in early 80s. Needless to say it was the first round, I could have appealed (I paid instead) and delay the problem for another 20 years. Which basically means that if someone owes you money, even if you are right and sue them, they might be ordered to pay 20 years later.

Marco Venti

Marco Venti, lives in Italy

Répondu il y a 72w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 946 et de vues de réponses 3.7m

I’ll take your bait and point out some facts:

Functional illitteracy is sky high in Italy. Survey says it was around 50% in ‘08, I suspect we are near 80%.

Pourquoi l’Italie est-elle plus pauvre et sous-développée que d’autres pays européens?

La source: Analfabetismo funzionale - Wikipedia

People can read, but they don’t understand what they are reading.
If you are on Quora or Reddit you are way above average. Let's not kid ourselves. Think about your grandma or your grandpa or whoever you meet in your everyday life. You may think they are thinking like you. They aren’t. They are on autopilot since ages, because it’s easier. There’s no shame in that, everyone can conduct the life as he wants, but if you harm -even indirectly- someone else, than we have a problem.

Did you know that in Italy it is mandatory to pay a tax for the sole fact that you own a TV or a PC through which you could watch TV in streaming?
Each family has to pay, now they put this tax on the utility invoice.
And the funniest thing is that it is used to finance the state television: RAI
La source: Canone televisivo in Italia - Wikipedia

So basically they can spin each narrative they want. Old people are addicted: as above mentioned they don’t understand if what they are saying is good or bad for them, if it elevates their wisdom or it brings it down.
This is just a slippery slope: Panem et Circenses at its best.
People are bombed with low quality news and contents that do not cover the important topics => Do you think they are going to remain as smart as they are? Get smarter? or dumber? . . .
They do not even realize it.

Now the internet gave the possibility to disrupt the TV propaganda.
Movimento 5 Stelle is gaining traction since a lot of years, because people are sick and tired. But these same people are often - not always - uneducated and believe in conspiracy theories easily. At the inception the majority of the members of The 5star Movement had controversial views on vaccines or the seignorage or chemitrails or whatever, now I think they ditched the judaic-masonic plot, probably even chemitrails too. They said they were anti-euro, then they said they were joining ALDE -> Italy's anti-euro Five Star Movement votes to split with Ukip in European Parliament in grab for more influence Then they backed up (or maybe nobody wanted to be associated with them?), then they said they didn’t care anymore -> Grillo: «L’uscita dall’euro? Non ha importanza, ma se ne parli»

And today FTSE MIB was down 2% because we may have early election and this party is probably going to win. Former Italy PM Renzi favours early election
The mayor of Rome is from this party, but she wasn’t able to accomplish anything. M5S thought they were going to make the revolution, and bring corrupted people down, as a matter of fact the Mafia has too much power, you don’t go anywhere if you -as mayor- don’t make them win the contracts => Renzi: "Svolta Raggi? Dare rifiuti a quelli di Mafia Capitale"
I must point out that in Turin m5s is doing good tough, what’s fair is fair.

In the meantime Berlusconi, once considered the savior of the country with his neoliberal policies, the guy “who could run our country better than the other politicians because he could run his businesses well” - This was the mantra among the functionally illitterate -, is now proposing a party for the pet lover. => Animal lover Berlusconi has new pet project
This guy knows how to sell. He knows that Italians are particularly easy to manipulate. This is just another shabby attempt to gain consensus… and worst thing is that it may work for 3–5% of the electorate.

20% of Italians uses Homeopathy -> OMEOPATIA. 20 LA UTILIZZA ALMENO UNA VOLTA L’ANNO. And a 7 years old boy died the other day because his otits were “cured” through the homeopathy -> Muore per un'otite a sette anni Lorenzin
Now be honest, how comforted would you be if you knew that the “doctor” and the parents had the same right vote as you do, and they are togheter with at least other 10million people?

But let not digress any further on Healthcare.. becuase hey, it’s “free” - Not for long IMHO -

Let’s talk about the economic boom: When people were going in pension after 14 years of hard work!!! -> Baby pensioni - Wikipedia Yeah, and these guys are alive and well, and guess who’s paying for them? Who’s working now… Who maybe will work in the next 10 years and beyond. And what if lifespan expandes thanks to improvement in Healthcare? They’ll live longer, they’ll cost more, and the Italian pension fund will bleed more money, and the public debt will raise, and the interest on the public debt will raise, and some cuts on the spending will have to be made… And guess qui prodest - who had benefited and will benefit more - the older, or the younger?

Why doesn’t the government do anything about it? Because they’d lose consensus, and people would get very angry and be sure to never vote them again. Politicians are smart (but not super smart): they just want to eat as long as possible, slowly shearing the sheep over and over… but you can only skin it once.

Back again to the economic boom: A lot of small business owners were making tons of money, they had stash of cash everywhere, what’s the best thing to do? “Let’s put the money in il mattone” - Yeah, Italians are financially illitterate, they don’t know what an index fund is, and btw, probably they’d better not know because the “thriving” companies are banks de facto state-owned and the compounding doesn’t work that well - …

Pourquoi l’Italie est-elle plus pauvre et sous-développée que d’autres pays européens?

So, everybody buys a house with the stolen money from the Italian IRS => housing oversupply, prices have gone up, inflations were going really well, the interest on the mortgages with inflation were going in the favour of the “investors” => everybody owns a house now, more than one, in fact.. if you have been decent at managing your cash surpluses.
Now, what do you do? Housing Oversupply, but nobody wants to sell, because the Real Estate is tangible, “A stock? It’s not, it’s just a piece of paper, it’s fictional” - The Italian financial illitterate says -
Everybody living with their mama, because youth unemployment is at 40% => Istat: la disoccupazione dei giovani risale al 40,1%, houses cost too much, even if they were built 40 years ago, and if they don’t cost that much you’ll pay 1/3rd of your salary just for the fuel, because they’d be so far from where the workplaces are.

Oh, yeah, the fuel. We have no large oil reserves, no carbon, we didn’t want the nuclear - “Because is dangerous!!” and the public opinion knows how to vote - etc, in the US you pay $2.4/gallon, we pay $5,48/gallon.
Mostly because Accisa sui carburanti - Wikipedia, for example we are still paying €0.10 per liter (or €0.37/gallon = $0.41/gallon) for the 1983 war in Lebanon. CAN YOU BELIEVE IT!!? Why aren’t Italian angry about it? reread the first paragraph.

Back to the housing: Now, (almost) everybody who has (had) money has a house, public debt is sky high, what do we do, as politicians?
We tax properties, so we take from everybody.
Direct tax on the patrimony? No, it would be too obvious, they’d risk to get mad => We tax the real estate, it’s subtle and they won’t complain.

High public debt, which is the consequence of high private savings, which the old people had the chance to make in boom times, now is going to creep the country.

Now, they spinned the narrative that migrants were going to pay pensions to us: I lavoratori immigrati �muovono� il Pil e pagano 640mila pensioni (BTW, this newspaper had scandal because nobody buy copies for real. This is basically the newspaper of the “Italian association of entrepreneurs” - let’s call it this way - here’s the scandal => Sole 24 ore, lo scandalo del Sole è lo specchio della crisi del capitalismo italiano e della perdita di credibilità delle élite )

But do you want to know the truth? You need high paying jobs, which have higher output, which will increase the GDP, which will increase the consumption, which will increase the gettito (revenues), which could help cutting on taxes and reducing debt.
And who gets the high paying job? Someone who holds a Master Degree, or better? Or someone who is coming in Italy trhough ship, doesn’t know our language, our culture, has living expenses paid for, and is not going to get educated to make more money for himself and his family?

Pourquoi l’Italie est-elle plus pauvre et sous-développée que d’autres pays européens?

Italy second worst country in Europe with 26% people holding at least a bachelor.

Another problem is that even if an Italian entrepreneur had a team of 10x $100k software engineer, he wouldn’t know what to do with it.
The market is too small, there is no culture for entreprenuership, for scaling, for expanding, for risking, for business.
There are no Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 for personal Bankruptcy in Italy… There is no need, nobody is going to take personal risks.
If you risk and fail you are a total loser, if you stay on the couch of your mom’s basement it’s fine, tough.

In Italy if you are an entrepreneur “you are exploiting the labour force”, “you are a daddy’s boy” or “a tax cheat”. “There is no meritocracy in Italy, therefore if you are making more money then me you must be doing something wrong, illegal and the government should punish you!”. This is how the vast majority of the left, the center, and a good portion of the right think in Italy.
Do you think this is a good environment for entreprenuership and innovation?

“Taxes? We want more!!!”
Flixbus offers low-cost pullman transportations in Italy - mostly because they move the profits in tax havens -like any multinational does- thus they are able to lower the price for the consumer and avoid giving money to big government - ?
“That’s not fair!! => We, as Italian consumers, would gladly pay more!” And Italians cheer because the government has blocked the service: Manovra, ok norma anti-Flixbus (2 days ago)

So, do you think outside capital is going to fly into Italy if the effective tax rate is around 70% (considering those who don’t pay taxes and those who pay for them?). And how are we going to go forward whitout outside capital?
Are Italians going to borrow against their homes to have money to invest in job creating activities to bring the economy running? Nah.. I didn’t think so.
Though I believe it will be a solution once this country is creeped, the worst thing is that many old people will be basically forced to borrow against their homes for their day to day consumptions, thus leaving the wealth saved in a lifetime to the government and the heirs won’t have anything for themselves. Quod severis metes = as you sow, so shall you reap. They aren’t sowing shi* anymore, now what could they possibly reap?

Small business owner are getting crashed by globalization, e-commerce and imports: You have Amazon that has the products at 20–30% discount, because how do you plan to pay for the rent and the utilities of your physical shop in the century city when you sell small quantities if you don’t charge high premiums? You have Groupon, you have Yoox, you have various other things.
E-commerce is killing who is not able to adapt. If the large multinationals are getting killed

Pourquoi l’Italie est-elle plus pauvre et sous-développée que d’autres pays européens?

Pourquoi l’Italie est-elle plus pauvre et sous-développée que d’autres pays européens?

Don’t you think that probably your time has come?

L'Italien patron de PME is not able to cut on his losses, because as I said, if he fails => the shame is too big. So he adds sunk cost after sunk cost and in 2 or 3 years he has burned all the profit he made since he started his activity 30 years ago. Where is that wealth gone? Dunno.. evaporated.
Think about his suppliers who won’t get paid back.
You can fail when you have too many debts or too many crédits inesigibili ( in english it would be non-collectable, i.e. bad loans)

If you do not add any value to the economy, why would you deserve to get paid (a premium)?

Italy is the best (or second best) in some small nichey markets:

Pourquoi l’Italie est-elle plus pauvre et sous-développée que d’autres pays européens?

Italy (ITA) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners
The only way to win is to double down on winners and cut on losers

Imagine if you were living in a Country surrounded by people who don't grasp individual liberty and basic economics, and that those people wanted to collectively make decisions on how you should run your life.

I don’t like conspiracy theories, but in Italy it seems like people are kept artificially stupid and ignorant about economics 101.

Michele Fadda

Michele Fadda, works at FW LAB Ac

Répondu il y a 74w

Italy was considered strategic during the Cold War, As such and following Yalta Agreements, democracy was practically nominal, as no true democratic alternance was practically possible; the “communist party” was to be let outside of the government, and clandestine military organizations were put in place in case the proper “democratic party” did not win.
A Golpe in south american style was even prepared and called off at the last moment.
Italy was part of “strategia della tensione” and false flag bombings took place in order to convince the population of the red drift risks.

Whatever chance for the system to self correct its mistakes simply did not happen.
The judicial system, the army, police in 1948 were actually driven by the very same officials which stayed in their positions at the end of the war.

Add a widespread presence of “voto di scambio” and hiring processes driven by political advantage, and widespread corruption, at all levels.

For instance, it is (today) customary for a Italian university professor giving a lectio magistralis to mention his political references and prime minister in charge, which would raise a few eyebrows in any other academic environment (blatant lack of academic integrity/decor/spine) in any other “civilized” or simply less corrupt countries.

Academia in Italy suffers the same kind of familism, cliques, corruption, as the rest of society. An Italian degree practically offers little guarantees it was not obtained cheating (specialized firms offer plagiarism services with fliers which are normally found in most Italian universities, some of these have been operating for decades, there have been TV reports on this).

Italian legal system is practically a sour joke: lawyers are the only one who could in theory observe malpractice by a judge in court, but their “ethical code”, which they have to respect unless they want to be disbarred, practically prevents them attempting it. Both access to lawyer bar exam and magistrate exams are not exempt from scandals arising for systematic cheating, i.e. some candidates knowing the questions and similar.

The Italian legal system is by nature more complex, as the law must be “interpreted” according to the presumed intent of the legislator, which gives the judges ample leverage for subjectivity. In theory the judicial power should be “not linked to politics”, but in practice the less conforming and more “radical” judges (those more actively fighting corruption, that is) are more often removed/disciplined.

Basically, the whole judicial/legal systems suffers from gigantic agency

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Jayant Shilanjan Mundhra

Jayant Shilanjan Mundhra, Politics, Geopolitics and Public Policy Enthusiast

Mise à jour il y a 47w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 862 et de vues de réponses 4.5m

Réponse d'origine: How did Qatar become the richest country in the world?

With a total landmass of 11,580 sq. Kilometres, Qatar is a very small independent nation, which is fully covered by deserts and is situated in the center of the entire Middle East. And, until lesser than a century ago, it was one of the poorest nations in the entire region.

It was sparsely populated, because of the inhospitable desert lands where the temperature in summers would climb up to over 50 degrees Celsius. Also, back then it used to be a colony of United Kingdom.

The primary sources of income for this tiny nation used to be its dwindling fishing industry, and extraction of pearls out of the ocean. The days were not very good. However, then in 1938, its first oil field was discovered, and things began to change but only to a minimal extent.

This was so because the oil reserves were not humongous enough to change the prospects of the country. Then, in 1970 something big happened. Oil major, Shell had discovered the world's third largest gas field- The Northern Fields in Qatar. However, back then the only means to transport gas was through pipelines.

The problem with that was this. Every place where there was a significant demand for natural gas, was just too far off Qatar and to lay pipelines to those places would have been an unviable and very costly affair. This wasn't something that the British back then was open to spending on one of its tiniest colony.

However, when Qatar gained independence in 1971, the new Emir had already realized that the only way he could have changed the fortunes for Qatar and its people was by means of trading the natural gas. Thus, he heavily invested monetary resources into research and development of this underdeveloped science called Liquefaction.

Liquefaction is a process of conversion of natural gas to liquid form which can be easily transported in containers loaded over ships and trucks.

And, that investment made back in those times in the later years paid back in ginormous volumes. Within a very short span, Qatar began to export natural gas to nations spanning all across the globe, earning back humongous Petrodollars (Dollars earned by means of Oil and Gas trade).

And, that was how Qatar transformed its fate, from a poor desert nation dependent on failing fishing industry and pearl extraction to a super-rich country with booming infrastructural development and radically improving lifestyle which was also depicted in the marvelous GDP growth rates.

But hang on! I regurgitate what I just said above. That was how Qatar became super rich. And, super-rich does not mean the richest country on the planet. And, that brings us to the second part of this answer.

A lot of nations trade in oil and natural gas and earn a huge lot of money out of it. But, what they do with that money is what decides their fate. Venezuela, for instance, spent it all in outlandish mannerism, and now is a collapsed state struggling on the verge of bankruptcy.

Meanwhile, Qatar took a different path. It spent a lot of what it was earning from gas trade into building the modern capital city of Doha and a infra-structurally jaw-dropping good country. Meanwhile, it also invested a lot of what it was earning. Why?

Because what Qatar spent would be gone. But, what Qatar would invest would earn it back more money even when oil or gas won't. Smart. Isn't it? So, Qatar formed a sovereign wealth fund to strategically invest its fortunes across the Globe in diversified sectors. The body was called, "Qatar Investment Authority."

For ease, let's refer to it as QIA from now on. And, QIA did such a wonderful job at choosing the right assets to invest into, that today its net worth is over $335 Billion! That's a mind-boggling figure making it the eleventh biggest sovereign wealth fund in the entire world.

And, that's the wealth of a nation with a population of just over 2.5 Million, among who Qatari people account for just about 300,000 people! Yep, just five zeros after 3. And, that is what has risen its overall GDP per capita to over $127,000! Just for comparison, USA had registered a GDP per capita of a little lesser than $60,000 in 2016.

This wealth fund made investments in all sort of sectors, be it sports and travel or real estate and technology. Not only has it invested heavily into well-known tech companies like Uber, it also is one of the largest stakeholders in popular companies like Volkswagen, Shell and Russian oil giant, Rosneft.

Then, it also has stakes in the greatest of cities, and their best of properties. I mean, just imagine this. Qatar owns more property in London than the Queen of England does. It owns 34% of the top 15 skyscrapers in London, while the very UK based companies own a little lesser than 21%.

And, when we talk of the iconic Empire State building of New York, we must remember that Qatar owns 10% of that marvel too. Similarly, it has a 20% stake in the British Airways, 20% ownership in the Heathrow Airport and 25% in the St. Petersburg Airport as well. Wow!

And, the money that these investments earn Qatar every month, every year is then invested back into acquiring other valuable assets and also channelled back into the home country to build more of highways, ports, airports, colleges and universities, and more of infrastructural marvels like sky scrapers and much more.

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

And, that's the tale of Qatar cracking open the juggernaut of wealth creation and becoming the richest country on the entire freaking planet. Bliss!




Manvendra Singh

Manvendra Singh, Banker at IDBI Bank

Répondu il y a 55w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 163 et de vues de réponses 216.5k

How Qatar got so rich so fast

Qatar has been ruled by the Al-Thani family since the early 1900s when it became a British protectorate. On July 17, 1913, Sheikh Abdullah Bin Qassim Al-Thani (center left) became the ruler of Qatar.

At the time, Qatar’s primary industry was pearling and fishing. The country was marked by widespread poverty, malnutrition, and disease from the collapse of the pearl trade in the 1920s.

AP Photo

In 1945, American GIs tried their hand at diving for pearls with professional pearl divers in Bahrain, one of Qatar's neighbors.

In 1939, oil was discovered at Dukhan. Development on the field was slow until 1949 because of World War II. While the oil discovery was significant, it was nothing compared with the natural-gas reserves found 30 years later.

Harrison Jacobs/Google Maps

In 1951, Qatar produced 46,500 barrels of oil per day, amounting to $4.2 million in revenue. The discovery of off-shore oil fields and their development by Shell led to an increase in Qatar's production to 233,000 barrels per day.


Doha's commercial district in 1968.

New revenue from oil exports flooded the pockets of the ruling family, and Qatar began a slow modernization process. The country's first school, hospital, power plant, desalination plant, and telephone exchange all opened in the 1950s.

Embassy of Qatar

An aerial view of Doha, Qatar, in the 1940s.

Oil revenues steadily increased through the 1960s as the Al-Thani family strengthened its grip on power by installing relatives in high government positions. All Al-Thani family members were granted extravagant allowances.

AP Photo/Horst Faas

A Qatari tanker in 1971 offloading oil offshore.

Qatar gained its independence in 1971 after Great Britain announced that it was removing all of its military obligations east of the Suez Canal.

AP Photo

The mouth of the Suez Canal in 1951.

On February 22, 1972, Khalifa bin Hamad deposed his father, Emir Ahmad bin Ali, who was hunting with his falcons in Iran. Khalifa bin Hamad cut the expenditures of the royal family and increased spending on social programs, housing, health, education, and pensions.


This is the Amiri Diwan, or presidential palace, in 1971. The grounds are not even completed yet.

In 1971, the world's largest natural gas field, the South Pars/North Dome Gas-Condensate field, was discovered off the coast of Qatar. Petroleum production was still running high at the time, so the field was not developed.


Thanks to the North Field, Qatar has the largest natural-gas reserves in the world after Russia and Iran. Qatar's reserves are estimated to be 896 trillion cubic feet.

AP Photo

A Qatari Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) tanker ship is loaded up with LNG at Raslaffans Sea Port, northern Qatar.

The crash of oil prices in the 1980s, along with the emir siphoning off oil revenues, stalled the Qatari economy. The crisis led Qatar finally to develop the North Field in 1989, though even then production was slow.


By 1995, the situation in Qatar had not improved. Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani took the throne in a bloodless coup from Emir Khalifa bin Hamad, while the emir was in Switzerland. Sheikh Hamad set a whole new direction for the country.

AP Photo

One of Sheikh Hamad's first moves was to fast-track the development of the North Dome field. Production was ramped up, and Qatar began exporting liquid natural gas for the first time.


To accommodate increased production and demand, Qatar began building new liquid-natural-gas plants. Over the past 15 years, 14 liquid-natural-gas plants have been built in partnership with international oil companies.

In the late 1990s, Qatar entered into production sharing agreements with numerous international oil companies. The new companies began using horizontal drilling methods to reverse declines in oil production. Qatar's partnership with Maersk Oil resulted in the world's longest horizontal well.

In 1996, Qatar built the gigantic, billion-dollar al-Udeid air base, which has served as a logistics and command facility for the US Military. The partnership with the US military has given Qatar an unprecedented level of security.

In 1997, Qatar began long-term agreements to provide massive amounts of natural gas to Spain and Japan. Over time, Qatar further diversified its clients.

Agence internationale de l'énergie

Qatar's GDP has skyrocketed over the past 15 years, thanks to steady oil production and high natural-gas production.

Hoping to avoid the dreaded resource curse, Qatar has taken measures to diversify its economy. In 1998, the government built Education City, a massive campus that supports six American and two European universities, as well as research centers.

Sam Agnew

Qatar has amassed a sovereign wealth fund of $170 billion thanks to revenues from oil and natural gas. It has begun to invest it like a hedge fund.

In 2003, Qatar established the Qatar Investment Authority to recycle oil and gas income into other income streams. QIA has made big investments in Barclays Bank, Credit Suisse, Harrods, Porsche, Volkswagen, and a majority stake in the Paris Saint-Germain soccer team.

Qatar has become one of the largest holders of real estate in London through the QIA. Qatar owns The Shard, Western Europe's largest skyscraper, as well as large parts of Canary Wharf and other parts of the city.The Qatar Financial Center was built in 2005 to develop Qatar's financial services industry. The country believes it can become a financial-services leader for Gulf states thanks to its relative stability and large base of capital.

Qatar Financial Center

In 2006, Qatar passed Indonesia to become the largest exporter of liquid natural gas in the world with revenues from oil and natural gas amounting to 60% of Qatar's GDP. But more competition was coming, with liquid-natural-gas production booming in places including the US and Australia.

This Qatari tanker is the largest in the world.

In December 2010, Qatar was selected as host for the 2022 FIFA World Cup. Qatar promised to build 12 state-of-the-art stadiums that would employ cooling technology so players could escape the heat. Qatar has positioned itself as a sporting hub for the region, hosting or planning to host numerous global sporting events.

The skyline has changed dramatically in recent years.

Since 2000, 58 skyscrapers have been built or planned or are under construction in Doha, along with museums, stadiums, giant infrastructure projects, and more.

There have been widespread allegations of horrific working and living conditions for the migrant workers who are building the World Cup sites and other projects. Last June, it was alleged that Qatar spent $5 million on bribes to secure the 2022 World Cup bid. Switzerland is now opening an investigation into mismanagement and money laundering related to Qatar's bid.

Ex-FIFA VP Mohamed Bin Hammam, often referred to as the Qatari Machiavelli, is said to have spent millions on bribes and gifts to secure Qatar's bid.

Can Qatar become the Hong Kong of the Middle East, or will it fail to escape the resource curse or get dragged down by regional instability? It's one of the hottest questions in the world right now.

Meanwhile, it's good to be Qatari ...

Source - Google and business insider

Ritu Raj

Ritu Raj, International Relations

Répondu il y a 65w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 91 et de vues de réponses 191.4k

Réponse d'origine: Is Qatar the richest country in the world?

Here is the list of TOP 30 richest countries.

30. Japan — GDP per capita: $38,893 (£31,732)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

ESB Professional / Shutterstock

29. Finland — GDP per capita: $41,812 (£34,114)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


28. France — GDP per capita: $42,384 (£34,581)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

REUTERS/Jacky Naegelen

27. United Kingdom — GDP per capita: $42,513 (£34,686)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


26. Oman — GDP per capita: $43,737 (£35,685)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


25. Belgium — GDP per capita: $44,881 (£36,618)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


24. Canada — GDP per capita: $46,239 (£37,726)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


23. Denmark — GDP per capita: $46,602 (£38,022)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

REUTERS/Bob Strong

22. Taiwan — GDP per capita: $47,790 (£38,991)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Anisha Shah

21. Austria — GDP per capita: $47,856 (£39,045)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Alex Poison/Shutterstock

20. Iceland — GDP per capita: $48,070 (£39,220)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Flickr/James Kirkus-Lamont

19. Germany — GDP per capita: $48,189 (£39,317)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Sean Pavone / Getty Images

18. Australia — GDP per capita: $48,806 (£39,820)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Taras Vyshnya/Shutterstock

17. Sweden — GDP per capita: $49,678 (£40,532)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


16. Bahrain — GDP per capita: $50,302 (£41,041)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


15. The Netherlands — GDP per capita: $50,846 (£41,485)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

kavalenkava volha/Shutterstock

14. Saudi Arabia — GDP per capita: $54,078 (£44,122)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

REUTERS/Ali Jarekji

13. United States — GDP per capita: $57,293 (£46,745)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

La ville de New York.kaysha/Flickr

12. Hong Kong — GDP per capita: $58,094 (£47,375)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Ronnie Chua/Shutterstock

11. Switzerland — GDP per capita: $59,375 (£48,420)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


10. San Marino — GDP per capita: $64,443 (£52,553)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

REUTERS/Stefano Rellandin

9. United Arab Emirates — GDP per capita: $67,696 (£55,206)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Reuters/Matthias Seifert

8. Norway — GDP per capita: $69,296 (£56,510)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Flickr/Andrés Nieto Porras

7. Ireland — GDP per capita: $69,374 (£56,574)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Tilman Ehrcke/Shutterstock

6. Kuwait — GDP per capita: $71,263 (£58,114)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Reuters/Stephanie Mcgehee

5. Brunei — GDP per capita: $79,710 (£65,003)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Wikimedia/Sam garza

4. Singapore — GDP per capita: $87,082 (£71,015)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


3. Macao — GDP per capita: $96,147 (£78,407)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

REUTERS / Bobby Yip

2. Luxembourg — GDP per capita: $101,936 (£83,128)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Barbara Tasch

1. Qatar — GDP per capita: $129,726 (£105,791)

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?


Nitesh Rao

Nitesh Rao, Making music at the border of insanity & madness.

Répondu il y a 55w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 194 et de vues de réponses 368.1k

Qatar, no doubt is the richest country, boasts about $130,000 GDP Per Capita, the highest in the planet.

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Qatar is a high-revenu economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural-gas reserves and oil reserves.

Qatar ranks number one on the list of the top 10 richest nations because of its high GDP (PPP) per capita of $127,523. Qatar has a well-developed oil exploration industry where the petroleum industry accounts for 70% of its government revenue, 60% of its GDP and 85% of its export earnings.

Because of its wealth and economic success, it has been chosen as the host of the 2022 FIFA World Cup, the first Arab Nation to ever hold this role.

Swapnil Khandekar

Swapnil Khandekar, Mankind must put an end to war before war puts an end to mankind

Répondu il y a 55w

There are multiple parameters that define how rich a country is. Qatar is the richest country in terms of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita.

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Following are some reasons that made Qatar top the charts-

  • Stable Political System

People often underestimate the importance of a stable political system. Unlike many middle eastern countries Qatar has been politically stable ever since its independence. Qatar is an absolute Monarchy ruled by the Al Thani family. The ruling dynasty has been able to provide the Qataris with the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is the most advanced Arab state for human development

  • Exploiting natural resources

Before the emergence of petrol-based industry, Qatar was a poor pearl diving country. The exploration of oil and gas fields began in 1939.Oil was discovered in Qatar in 1940, in Dukhan Field. In 1973, oil production and revenues increased dramatically, moving Qatar out of the ranks of the world's poorest countries and providing it with one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.The discovery transformed the state's economy. Now, the country has a high standard of living for its legal citizens. With no income tax Qatar the unemployment rate in June 2013 was 0.1%.

  • Lack of any serious home issues

Unlike most countries,Qatar has no problems at home.Thus it allows Qatar intervenes where it sees fit without too much regard for upsetting others, because its policy is simply to engage with everyone it can as often as it can.

  • prioriser

Why is Qatar the richest country on earth?

Qatar’s has made a vast expansion of infrastructure at home, as well as its investment abroad. The government has allocated 40 percent of its budget between now and 2016 to infrastructure projects, including $11 billion on a new international airport, $5.5 billion on a deepwater seaport and $1 billion for a transport corridor in the capital, Doha. It will spend $20 billion on roads.The country's sovereign wealth fund, estimated to have assets worth around $70 billion, has poured more than $20 billion in recent years into stakes in German carmakers Porsche and Volkswagen, Agricultural Bank of China, Santander Brasil, Spain's Iberdrola and German builder Hochtief.Its ambitions extend into the realm of sport. In addition to winning the rights to host the 2022 soccer World Cup, Qatar has officially begun a bid to host the 2020 Olympics. It spent $2.8 billion on hosting the 2006 Asian Games.Thus regardless of the size, a country should be pragmatic. A proper vision and self analysis would he

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Shubham Nigam

Shubham Nigam, Analyste principal de l'assurance qualité et chef d'équipe chez MakeWebBetter (2016-present)

Mise à jour il y a 41w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 331 et de vues de réponses 109.9k

Eh bien,

If you have an online store having woo-commerce plugin then Makewebbetter provides you a list of the best plugin which must be present on your store which are as following-

1. WooCommerce Ultimate Gift Card- MakeWebBetter fournit Ultimate Gift Card Plug-in that enables the administrator to create multiple gift card product and choose available pricing variation for each Gift Card product.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

The administrator can also use multiple templates and assign to the Gift Card products.

The administrator can also send Offline Gift Card to the customer. In this administrator can fill manually details of the customer then Gift Card email template will send on the desired date. This is also done by importing CSV in the pre-defined format. For maintaining the records you can export Online Coupons Details and Offline Coupons Details.

2. WooCommerce Ultimate Points And Rewards- Makewebbetter also provides WooCommerce Ultimate Points and Reward plugin for your WooCommerce store. Using this plugin you can provide the reward to your customer on performing various activities.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

WooCommerce Ultimate Points and Reward provides many ways to reward your customer such as: -

1. Sign up Points: when new customer signup on the website then the customer will get the points as a reward.

2. Referral Points: Customer will get the point when he invites someone for Sign up on the website.

3. Comment Points: Customer will receive points for commenting on product and post.

4. Product Purchase Point: Admin can set points on products. On purchasing, that product customer will get the points.

3.WooCommerce-Sale Booster- WooCommerce Sale Booster – Product Page Enhancement allows you to put your sales on peak. It just lets you to show the customer that how demanding your product is with the reviews of the client on the product.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

You know it is a good idea to take it slow and gain a better understanding of the customers and this extension provides you all the essentials which are needed to enhance the sale and all this you can list in a Single product page.

Voici la liste des fonctionnalités de ce plugin -

1-Boost sale.

2-Classement du meilleur vendeur.

3-Enhanced rating.

4-Compte à rebours.

5-Seller commitment.

6-Live tracking of user.

7-Live tracking of add to cart products.

4. WooCommerce Order Tracker- Makewebbetter fournit une Suivi des commandes WooCommerce extension qui aidera vos clients à suivre leur commande en utilisant l'intégration API en temps réel.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Suivi des commandes WooCommerce a quelques traits clés qui sont comme donnés -

1. Obtenir le statut de la commande en un clic: Merchant can sanction or avoid this tracking feature,and the consumer can track their order from order section with just one click.

2. Modèles de suivi de commande: Ce paramètre fournit différents modèles que le marchand peut activer et rendre son plug-in interactif devant le client.

3. Complet responsive: Plug in is compatible with every device and responsive in each view(tab view, mobile view).

4. Third Party Integration: Track your customer’s order in an easy way with FedEx shipment tracking services and Postes Canada shipment tracking services.

Thanks for your Interest

Équipe Makewebbetter

Lorean Tobin

Lorean Tobin, Intéressé par WordPress

Répondu il y a 19w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 54 et de vues de réponses 6.3k

Je pense que ACF For WooCommerece, a good assistance for WooCommerce

Cela augmente une bonne idée pour la boutique en ligne de commerce électronique - Vendre en packs

I will take shoe for example
You are running a shoe shop.

You have hundreds of models of shoes from sneakers, high heels, slippers with different styles and colors but your store does not have enough space to display all of them.

Or you want to sell certain items in specific quantities. The case quantity and colors are different for each item.

The only way we can do this is by creating a product variant for both the quantity, the colors and the accessories, sell in packs – bundles

Product bundles are a great way to boost sales at every level. A package is a combination of complementary products sold in the form of a unit

With the development of e-commerce, we have many tools to support us to create a variation for your listing.

What if your website is WordPress platforms, is there any plugins to assist in this issue? With just a few clicks, you can easily make more options right on your website thanks to ACF for WooCommerce.

Planning a good package is a combination analyzing the customers’ behaviors and optimizing your page.


Your customers can identify the colors and the size of your feet they would like to buy. The first benefit of ACF for WooCommerce is that letting you select the option by showing the pictures rather than dropping down or indicating the words.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

A package can simply be a combination of two complementary products. Your customers can buy a pair of sneakers with socks or shoelace or both.

Shoes (Oxford)

Besides choosing the size and quantites, one more benefits of ACF for Woocommerce is that it allows your customers to choose a custom package of their products.

You can sell the accessories to your shoes in one package.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Talons hauts

There are many ways to increase your sales buy selling not only the accessories with shoes but also the related products.

We can’t imagine that what else customers would like to purchase. Why not we increase their demand by this way.

The more feature is that you can create a giftcard. Customers can edit their giftcards and send it to family memebers or friends in their packages.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

You can add any service you can provide to customers such as the schedule delivery.

If customers want to fast shipping, they can inform you via ACF Woocommerce and you can arrange for their orders.

ACF for Woocommerce offers you more features. Just read ici

Sujith Reghu

Sujith Reghu, Writing on WordPress, WooCommerce and Plugins

Répondu il y a 38w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 71 et de vues de réponses 13.6k

a list of the best WooCommerce plugins that you may find necessary to run a successful WooCommerce store in 2018.

WooCommerce Abonnements

When you are running an online store, ensuring consistent revenue is one of the challenges that you may face. The natural ups and downs in customer interest and conversion rates should not affect your daily functioning. You might be thinking it would be really nice if you could ensure a certain fixed income every week or month. That way, you can plan store management better, and also be better prepared to face troubles when they appear. WooCommerce subscriptions extension is a great option that will ensure recurring income on your store.

Visit the extension page.

Dynamic Pricing and Discounts

Tarification dynamique is one of the essential strategies that you need to apply on your store to keep your customers interested in your products. You need to set up complex calculations to offer the best deals to customers without compromising on profitability. A good solution to help you with this would be XAdapter's Dynamic Pricing and Discounts plugin. The plugin helps you set up dynamic pricing on your store at multiple levels such as product, category, cart and combinations. Price adjustment can be made with a flat value or a percentage value. In addition, the plugin helps you set a maximum discount value for every calculation, so that the discount won't exceed the limit that you specify.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

XAdapter's Dynamic Pricing and Discounts plugin helps to set up multiple price adjustments based on a range of rules.

Here is a quick glance at some of the best features of this plugin:

  • Discounts based on date of purchase, previous order, weight, quantity, price, cart parameters, product combinations, etc.
  • You can also set discounts based on user roles or user emails.
  • Option to import and export rules.
  • Pricing table display on the product page.
  • Option to pick a rule to apply, in case of multiple rules satisfying a criteria.

Visit the plugin page.

WOOF WooCommerce Product Filter

Good filtering options are especially important for site navigation in an eCommerce store. If your site has quite a large number of products, your users need to have adequate filtering options to narrow down to what they are looking for. WOOF plugin allows your customers to narrow down their searches based on categories, tags, attributes, price and other custom taxonomies.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Having extensive product filters is a great option to improve user experience on your WooCommerce store.

Furthermore, the plugin has several extensions including "Search by Text", "Search by SKU", "Taxonomy Range Slider", etc. Furthermore, you can create custom extensions using html elements. The plugin enables your WooCommerce store with widgets, product shortcodes, Ajax product searches and varied display options for taxonomies. With a simple user interface, the plugin is pretty is to set up and configure. And if you don't want to opt for a purchase right away, you can make use of their trial option.

Visit the plugin page.

Table Rate Shipping Pro

The ability to customize shipping options on your WooCommerce store would save you from a lot of hassles. You will be able to offer great shipping options to customers, and at the same time ensure your profitability as well. XAdapter's Table Rate Shipping Pro plugin is a great choice to customize shipping options on your WooCommerce store. With the help of this plugin, you can set up a table that will help you calculate shipping rates based on a variety of conditions.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Table Rate Shipping Pro plugin has great features to simplify complex shipping calculations.

You can create rules based on product weight, price, number of items, cart subtotal, shipping class, shipping destination, etc. In addition, it helps you set up multiple rates per shipping zone. Also, you can set up various shipping options catering to different priority levels which the customers can choose. For example, you can set up 'Express' or 'Priority' services at a higher rate than the 'Standard' options. Furthermore, it has a unique option to estimate the shipping requirements at product level itself. Also, you can set up a base cost for shipping, and then add a variable cost for each extra item in the cart.

Visit the plugin page.

WooCommerce Lightspeed POS Integration

To make an eCommerce venture successful, sometimes you may need to connect multiple sales channels. That's how WooCommerce store owners often find the need to connect their point of sale store to their online store. WooCommerce Lightspeed POS Integration plugin allows you to synchronize your inventory between your WooCommerce store and Lightspeed account. Obviously, you need to have a Lightspeed account for this integration to work.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Lightspeed POS integration helps you synchronize your WooCommerce store with your Lightspeed account.

Here is a quick look at some of the advantages of Lightspeed retail POS:

  • Flexibility to sell from a store and online.
  • Great inventory management
  • Insightful reporting and analytics
  • Ensures customer loyalty
  • Integrated payments
  • Cloud ready to ensure mobility to your business.
  • Support dédié

Visit the integration page.

WooCommerce Checkout Field Editor

You need to provide a hassle-free checkout for your customers to feel good and come back to your store. Experts advise on optimizing the checkout for better customer satisfaction. WooCommerce Checkout Field Editor extension is a great option to customize the checkout experience to the liking of your customer base. Basically, using this extension, you can add additional fields on your checkout page. You can add different types of fields such as check boxes, select options, text area, date pickers, etc.

In addition, the extension gives you an option to shift the default options on the WooCommerce checkout page. If you are constantly doing a research on customer behavior on your store, this extension can be a great asset to try out new ideas.

Visit the extension page.

WooCommerce Adhésions

A proven strategy to sell content online is by creating memberships option to access it. This WooCommerce extension provides you with an option to restrict access to your site's content. The extension enables you to try out multiple strategies. For example, you can actually sell the access to memberships on your store for a price, or offer it complimentary with purchases. Moreover, it gives you total control in assigning memberships, and helps you integrate the entire membership strategy.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

This extension helps you create and manage a great membership strategy on your store.

The extension gives you great control to decide how users can access your content. You can set different strategies to restrict access depending on the membership process on your store. When used along with the WooCommerce subscriptions extension, memberships offers much more scope in your store strategies. The extension also enables you to be in constant touch with members via email, and occasionally reward them with interesting deals.

Visit the extension page.

WooCommerce Product Add-ons

One of the growing trends in eCommerce is product personalization. When too many choices are available for customers to pick the same product, you need to offer value additions. Involving customers in personalizing products is one such strategy that is attempted by multiple store owners. Similar to Checkout Field Editor, this extension lets you add fields on the product page. It is a great way to take inputs from customers on products, before they add it to the cart.

The extension allows you to add multiple field types like text areas, select boxes, check boxes, custom price inputs, etc. Moreover, you can add fields specifically on one product, or across all products. More importantly, you can charge customers for the additional options they select. On the front end, customers would see the additional product options just above the 'Add to Cart' button.

Visit the extension page.

Product Import Export

Often, you need to import and export products to and from your WooCommerce store. This may be to add products to a newly created site, or to share the information with an external solution. When you have too many products on your store, this process can become quite complex and tedious. XAdapter's Product Import Export plugin is a great solution to streamline your product migration process. The plugin helps you import and export all kinds of products, including variations.

With the help of this plugin, you can export products to a CSV file from your store. Similarly, you can import products to your WooCommerce store from a CSV file. In addition, you can import products from a specified url as well. Furthermore, you can schedule import and export via FTP using Cron Jobs. In fact, you can schedule automatic import and export simply by specifying the start and end time.

This plugin also allows the import and export of product reviews. The process of importing and exporting reviews is more or less similar to that of products. You can use the plugin along with some of the other popular WooCommerce solutions such as Product Bundles, Yoast SEO and Google Product Feed.

Visit the plugin page.

WooCommerce Booking & Appointment Plugin

Through an eCommerce store, you can easily take bookings and reservations for services and facilities. Here is an awesome plugin that will help you accept bookings and reservations through your WooCommerce store. With the help of this plugin, you can create booking option for any kind of products on your store including variations and bundles. You can even create time slots of different length for the same product. The plugin is a great option to sell bookings, appointments and rentals through your store.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

This plugin gives you great options to sell services and rentals through your WooCommerce store.

Visit the plugin page.

You can read the original article here - http://learnwoo.com/woocommerce-...

Azhar Nayeem

Azhar Nayeem, Écrivain le plus consulté, Écrit à propos de WordPress et WooCommerce

Répondu il y a 46w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 146 et de vues de réponses 93.4k

Merci pour A2A!

Ici je liste five of the most useful WooCommerce plugin.

For a full list of plugins, categorized by their functionality, read my other Quora answer.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

De plus, WooCommerce Google Analytics is a good choice for tracking websites statistics.

Check list of plugins categorized by their functionality ici .

Thanks!! ��

Amit Shah

Amit Shah, Expert en commerce électronique et cofondateur d'AppJetty

Mise à jour il y a 38w · L'auteur dispose de réponses 691 et de vues de réponses 220.8k

Writing, expressing and sharing stories to the world. When one wants to indulge into these pleasures through an online platform, WordPress is the first word that comes to one’s mind.

Which are the best WooCommerce Plugins?

But what about the money making pleasures that ecommerce platforms render? Are Shopify, Magento and Bigcommerce the only options? Fortunately, no. The ease of blog writing through WordPress also ventured into online selling; thanks to WooCommerce plugins.

WooCommerce plugin was developed in the year 2011 and it comes with a toolkit that helps ecommerce store owners to sell anything they want online. It powers nearly 29%, 37% and 41% of ecommerce websites in US, Canada and India respectively.

If you already a WooCommerce website and you need more control over its features like shipping, delivery, packaging etc.; you should consider integrating WooCommerce add-ons. These add-ons can be easily integrated to your WooCommerce store and help you streamline several functions.

Given below are four WooCommerce Plugins developed by AppJetty that business owners can use to enhance the value of their store with different functionalities:

WooCommerce Australia Post Shipping Plugin

This plugin serves a good purpose for WooCommerce store owners based in Australia. It takes the guesswork out of the shipping process and helps them to:

  • Offrez plusieurs méthodes d'expédition
  • Set shipment handling charges
  • Provide shipment tracking to customers
  • Add live shipping rates from AusPost to your store

If you often lose your customers due